thallium

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n thallium a soft grey malleable metallic element that resembles tin but discolors on exposure to air; it is highly toxic and is used in rodent and insect poisons; occurs in zinc blende and some iron ores
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Thallium (Chem) A rare metallic element of the aluminium group found in some minerals, as certain pyrites, and also in the lead-chamber deposit in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. It is isolated as a heavy, soft, bluish white metal, easily oxidized in moist air, but preserved by keeping under water. Symbol Tl. Atomic weight 203.7.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n thallium Chemical symbol, Tl; atomic weight, 204.2. A rare metal which was discovered in the residuum left from the distillation of selenium by Crookes, in 1861, and was first supposed to contain tellurium, but afterward proved, by the aid of the spectroscope, to be new. Thallium as prepared artificially has a bluish- white tint and the luster of lead. It is malleable, and so soft that it can be scratched with the finger-nail. Its specific gravity is 11.8. Thallium is somewhat widely distributed, but never occurs in large quantities. The rare mineral called crookesite, found in Sweden, is an alloy of thallium, selenium, and copper, with a little silver. Thallium seems to be present in both iron and copper pyrites from various localities, and it is from the fiue-dust from sulphuric-acid works in which pyrites is burned that the metal is chiefly obtained. Thallium is chemically classed with the metals of the lead group, but its reactions are in certain respects very peculiar and exceptional. It has been employed in the manufacture of glass, and is said to furnish a glass of extraordinary brilliancy and high refractive power.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Thallium thal′i-um a metal closely resembling lead in colour and softness, but slightly heavier, first discovered in 1861, and so called from the presence of an intense green line in the spectrum of the flame in which it is volatilised
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
NL., fr. Gr. young or green shoot or branch, twig. So called from a characteristic bright green, line in its spectrum
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Gr. thallos, a green shoot.

Usage

In literature:

The thallium papers show that the greatest effect is in the daytime, the iodide papers that it is at night.
"Scientific American Supplement No. 275" by Various
We will now remove the thallium and put a bit of silver in its place.
"Six Lectures on Light" by John Tyndall
Thallium solutions conduct the electric current badly.
"Scientific American Supplement, No. 441, June 14, 1884." by Various
Among other substances tried in the preliminary experiments were thallium, lithium, and hydrogen.
"Scientific American Supplement, No. 633, February 18, 1888" by Various
The solution commonly used for the heaviest stones is a mixture of nitrate of thallium and nitrate of silver.
"The Chemistry, Properties and Tests of Precious Stones" by John Mastin
Converts to Thallium 203, stable.
"The Bramble Bush" by Gordon Randall Garrett
Other varieties contain small amounts of mercury, tin, manganese or thallium.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Slice 1" by Various
Thallium nitrate c. p., in aqueous solution, in 2-gram doses, killed a rabbit weighing 2,154.6 grams in two hours and fifteen minutes.
"Barium, A Cause of the Loco-Weed Disease" by Albert Cornelius Crawford
Thallium discovered by Crookes, and Indium by Reich and Richter.
"The Progress of Invention in the Nineteenth Century." by Edward W. Byrn
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In news:

She is accused of murdering her estranged husband, Xiaoye Wang, by poisoning him with thallium.
She is accused of murdering her estranged husband, Xiaoye Wang, by poisoning him with thallium .
Thallium Doping Boosts Thermoelectrics.
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In science:

We have not attempted to reach optimal doping, which in this system is believed to correspond to a superconducting Tc of at least 93 K , because even higher annealing temperatures would be required, increasing the risk of thallium loss.
Tl2Ba2CuO6+d Brings Spectroscopic Probes Deep Into the Overdoped Regime of the High-Tc Cuprates
We use this expression to generate numerically the AMRO expected in overdoped thallium cuprate for an isotropic scattering rate.
Temperature Dependence of Interlayer Magnetoresistance in Anisotropic Layered Metals
Quantum spin-Hal l effect — We consider a graphene sheet adsorbed with diluted nonmagnetic atoms (e.g. indium or thallium), which prefer the hollow site of graphene .
Stabilizing topological phases in graphene via random adsorption
To conclude, in a thallium-atom adsorbed graphene, the quantum spin-Hall state is a system-preferred ground state for any adatom coverage, and the bulk gap ∼ 46 meV can be detected under current experimental techniques.
Stabilizing topological phases in graphene via random adsorption
We now discuss the three main problems of the thallium experiment in the order in which they had to be answered during the feasibility study, which is however perhaps not yet completed (!).
The Neutrino - Its Past, Present and Future
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