• WordNet 3.6
    • adj supernumerary more than is needed, desired, or required "trying to lose excess weight","found some extra change lying on the dresser","yet another book on heraldry might be thought redundant","skills made redundant by technological advance","sleeping in the spare room","supernumerary ornamentation","it was supererogatory of her to gloat","delete superfluous (or unnecessary) words","extra ribs as well as other supernumerary internal parts","surplus cheese distributed to the needy"
    • n supernumerary a minor actor in crowd scenes
    • n supernumerary a person serving no apparent function "reducing staff is difficult because our employees include no supernumeraries"
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Supernumerary A person or thing beyond the number stated.
    • Supernumerary A person or thing beyond what is necessary or usual; especially, a person employed not for regular service, but only to fill the place of another in case of need; specifically, in theaters, a person who is not a regular actor, but is employed to appear in a stage spectacle.
    • Supernumerary Exceeding a necessary, usual, or required number or quality; superfluous; as, supernumerary addresses; supernumerary expense.
    • Supernumerary Exceeding the number stated or prescribed; as, a supernumerary officer in a regiment.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • supernumerary Exceeding a number stated or prescribed: as, a supernumerary officer in a regiment.
    • supernumerary Exceeding a necessary or usual number.
    • n supernumerary A person or thing beyond the number stated, or beyond what is necessary or usual; especially, a person not formally a member of a regular body or staff of officials or employees, but retained or employed to act as an assistant or substitute in case of necessity.
    • n supernumerary Specifically— A military officer attached to a corps or arm of the service where no vacancy exists. Such an officer receives, in the United States army, the rank of brevet second lieutenant, or additional second lieutenant.
    • n supernumerary Theat., one not belonging to the regular company, who appears on the stage, but has no lines to speak. Often colloquially abbreviated super and supe.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • adj Supernumerary sū-pėr-nūm′ėr-ar-i over and above the number stated, or which is usual or necessary
    • n Supernumerary a person or thing beyond the usual, necessary, or stated number: one who appears on the stage without a speaking part
    • ***


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. supernumerarius,: cf. OF. supernuméraire, F. surnuméraire,. See Super-, and Numerary Number


In literature:

But Dave pretended not to know that he was a supernumerary.
"The Cow Puncher" by Robert J. C. Stead
Hang me if you're fit to appear as a supernumerary!
"Art in England" by Dutton Cook
Supernumerary Teeth: Tooth substance may develop in almost any part of the body.
"The Veterinarian" by Chas. J. Korinek
These, however, had the rank of supernumeraries, merely following the speaker around, but never taking part in the dialogue.
"A Popular History of the Art of Music" by W. S. B. Mathews
Or have you sufficient supernumerary Officers to fill all casualties?
"Gallipoli Diary, Volume 2" by Ian Hamilton
Frequently I had noticed among the common abnormalities supernumerary fingers and toes.
"Across Unknown South America" by Arnold Henry Savage Landor
Supernumerary: additional or added cells, veins or other structures.
"Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology" by John. B. Smith
Usually, the men have but one wife, but occasionally there are supernumeraries.
"Olla Podrida" by Frederick Marryat (AKA Captain Marryat)
There, having landed all her supernumeraries by the orders of the admiral, she once more sailed to carry the Earl to his destination.
"The Heir of Kilfinnan" by W.H.G. Kingston
Supernumerary carpels in orange (Maout) 303 162.
"Vegetable Teratology" by Maxwell T. Masters

In news:

1353—56) produced 17 new lines from embryos supernumerary to infertility treatments.
This type of rainbow is called a supernumerary rainbow, or stacker rainbow.
This type of rainbow is called a supernumerary rainbow , or stacker rainbow.
Da'Vine Joy Randolph is a vibrant, sassy presence as Sheryl, Hank's supernumerary colleague.
She is also a supernumerary member of Opus Dei.
(Clifford) Grayling (b 1949) likes to have it both ways: He is at once a respected academic—a professor of philosophy at Birbeck College, the University of London and a Supernumerary Fellow at St Anne's College, Oxford—and a popular writer.

In science:

The other half then remains completely indeterminate, while supernumerary parts can show highly varying degrees of indeterminacy.
Quantum Computation and Quantum Information: Are They Related to Quantum Paradoxology?
The model is the scalar glueball, probably already in our pocket as a supernumerary f0 (in fact, as a good quantum state, in both pockets at the same time).
Non quark-antiquark light meson spectroscopy