# species

## Definitions

• DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIES UNDER CIVILISATION
• WordNet 3.6
• n species a specific kind of something "a species of molecule","a species of villainy"
• n species (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
• Interesting fact: A species of earthworm, "Megascolides australis," in Australia can grow up to fifteen feet in length
• Species (Pharmacy) A component part of a compound medicine; a simple.
• Species (Logic) A group of individuals agreeing in common attributes, and designated by a common name; a conception subordinated to another conception, called a genus, or generic conception, from which it differs in containing or comprehending more attributes, and extending to fewer individuals. Thus, man is a species, under animal as a genus; and man, in its turn, may be regarded as a genus with respect to European American, or the like, as species.
• Species A public spectacle or exhibition.
• Species A sort; a kind; a variety; as, a species of low cunning; a species of generosity; a species of cloth.
• Species (Pharmacy) An officinal mixture or compound powder of any kind; esp., one used for making an aromatic tea or tisane; a tea mixture.
• Species Coin, or coined silver, gold, or other metal, used as a circulating medium; specie. "There was, in the splendor of the Roman empire, a less quantity of current species in Europe than there is now."
• Species In science, a more or less permanent group of existing things or beings, associated according to attributes, or properties determined by scientific observation.
• Species (Civil Law) The form or shape given to materials; fashion or shape; form; figure.
• Species Visible or sensible presentation; appearance; a sensible percept received by the imagination; an image. "The species of the letters illuminated with indigo and violet.""Wit, . . . the faculty of imagination in the writer, which searches over all the memory for the species or ideas of those things which it designs to represent."
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
• Interesting fact: There are about 34,000 species of spiders
• n species An appearance or representation to the senses or the perceptive faculties; an image presented to the eye or the mind. According to the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, the species, the outward and visible forms or the appearance of bread and wine in the eucharist, are the accidents only of bread and wine severally, the substance no longer existing after consecration. See intentional species, below.
• n species Something to be seen or looked at; a spectacle or exhibition; a show.
• n species In logic, and hence in ordinary language, a class included under a higher class, or, at least, not considered as including lower classes; a kind; a sort; a number of individuals having common characters peculiar to them.
• n species One of the kinds of things constituting a combined aggregate or a compound; a distinct constituent part or element; an instrumental means: as, the species of a compound medicine.
• n species In biology, that which is specialized or differentiated recognizably from anything else of the same genus, family, or order; an individual which differs, or collectively those individuals which differ, specifically from all the other members of the genus, etc., and which do not differ from one another in size. shape, color, and so on, beyond the limits of (actual or assumed) individual variability, as those animals and plants which stand in the direct relation of parent and offspring, and perpetuate certain inherited characters intact or with that little modification which is due to conditions of environment. Species is thus practically, and for purposes of classification, the middle term between genus on the one hand and individual (or specimen) on the other; and only the latter can be said in strictness to have material existence, so that species, like genus, etc., is in this sense an abstract conception. It is also an assured fact in biology that no given stock or lineage breeds perfectly true in all its individuals; the line of descent is always marked by modification of characters (due to the interaction between heredity and environment); the whole tendency of such modification is toward further specialization, in the preservation of the more useful and the extinction of the less useful or the useless characters, and thus to the gradual acquirement, by insensible increments, of differences impressed upon a plastic organism from without—which is as much as to say that new species have always been in process of evolution, and still continue to be so developed. (See biological senses of evolution, selection, survival, and variation.) Such evolution has in fact been arrested at some point for every species once existent whose members have perished in time past; and of those specific forms whose adaptation to their environment has fitted them to survive till the present some are tending to perpetuation and some to extinction, but all are subject to incessant modification, for better or worse. (See atavism, reversion, 2, retrograde, a., 3, degradation, 7, 8, and parasitism, 2.) Such are the views taken by nearly all biologists of the present day, in direct opposition to the former opinion of a special creation, which proceeded upon the assumption that all species of animals and plants, such as we find them actually to be, came into existence by creative flat at some one time, and have since been perpetuated with little if any modification. In consequence of the fact that the greatest as well as the least differences in organisms are of degree and not of kind, no rigorous and unexceptionable definition of species is possible in either the animal or the vegetable kingdom; and in the actual naming, characterizing, and classifying of species naturalists differ widely, some reducing to one or two species the same series of individuals which others describe as a dozen or twenty species. (See lumper, 3, splitter, 2.) This, however, is rather a nomenclatural than a doctrinal difference. The difficulty of deciding in many cases, and the impossibility of deciding in some, what degree of difference between given specimens shall be considered specific, and so formally named in the binomial system, have led to the introduction of several terms above and below the species (see subgenus, subspecies, conspecies, variety, race, 5 , intergrade, v. i.), and also to a modification of the binomial nomenclature (see polynomial, 2, and trinomial). Two tests are commonly applied to the discrimination between good species and mere subspecies or varieties:
• n species Coin; metallic money; specie. See specie.
• n species One of a class of pharmaceutical preparations consisting of a mixture of dried herbs of analogous medicinal properties, used for making decoctions, infusions, etc. See under tea.
• n species In civil law, the form or shape given to materials; fashion; form; figure.
• n species In mathematics: A letter in algebra denoting a quantity. [This meaning was borrowed by some early writers from the French of Viète, who derived it from a Latin translation of Diophantus, who uses ει%27δος to mean a term of a polynomial in a particular power of the unknown quantity.]
• n species A fundamental operation of arithmetic. See the four species, below.
• n species A former standard of currency in certain parts of Germany and in the north of Europe, apparently answering to the modern dollar of commerce.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
• Interesting fact: There are approximately 2,700 different species of mosquitoes
• Species a group of individuals having common marks or characteristics, specialised from others of the same genus to which it is subordinate: a group under a higher class, a kind or sort, a distinct constituent part, an element: an appearance to the senses, an image of an external object presented to the eye or the mind
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## Quotations

• Clarence Darrow
“It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”
• Voltaire
“Our wretched species is so made that those who walk on the well-trodden path always throw stones at those who are showing a new road.”
• Charles Caleb Colton
“To despise our own species is the price we must often pay for knowledge of it.”
• Friedrich Nietzsche
“Let us beware of saying that death is the opposite of life. The living being is only a species of the dead, and a very rare species.”
• Georg C. Lichtenberg
“There exists a species of transcendental ventriloquism by means of which men can be made to believe that something said on earth comes from Heaven.”
• Charles Delint
“And now the silences come in a single lifetime, in a single year... when species die, leaving a silent space in the world song that can never be filled.”

## Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L., a sight, outward appearance, shape, form, a particular sort, kind, or quality, a species. See Spice (n.), and cf. Specie Special

## Usage

### In literature:

Niches elsewhere usually occupied by certain species, absent here, are occupied by other species.
"Birds from Coahuila, Mexico" by Emil K. Urban
The following method might serve as a guide in the study of any species of tree.
"Ontario Teachers' Manuals: Nature Study" by Ontario Ministry of Education
It was the Bell vireo, an entirely new species to me.
"Our Bird Comrades" by Leander S. (Leander Sylvester) Keyser
The Limenos prefer this to any other species of the platano, and they consider it the most wholesome.
"Travels in Peru, on the Coast, in the Sierra, Across the Cordilleras and the Andes, into the Primeval Forests" by J. J. von Tschudi
This species of imperfection proceeds, I believe, from another cause.
"Conversations on Chemistry, V. 1-2" by Jane Marcet
While he is gathering morels to eat he will soon begin to distinguish the different species of the genera.
"The Mushroom, Edible and Otherwise" by M. E. Hard
This great teacher believed that species are fixed.
"The Meaning of Evolution" by Samuel Christian Schmucker
It is evidently the species of Schweinitz referred to by Fries under this name.
"The Myxomycetes of the Miami Valley, Ohio" by A. P. Morgan
The species is not similar to any other species known in Colombia.
"A Synopsis of Neotropical Hylid Frogs, Genus Osteocephalus" by Linda Trueb
One hardy Japanese species has been introduced; three exotic species are in cultivation in the South.
"Trees Worth Knowing" by Julia Ellen Rogers
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### In poetry:

"Reckons gross and ignoble my teaching,
Immoral my story,
My love-lights a lure, that my species
May gather and gain.
"The Mother Mourns." by Thomas Hardy
And why not? All weaker species
To the stronger yield their place;
May the same law not be needed
Through the boundless realms of space?
"Discouragement" by John Lawson Stoddard
"No more such! . . . My species are dwindling,
My forests grow barren,
My popinjays fail from their tappings,
My larks from their strain.
"The Mother Mourns." by Thomas Hardy
Confusedly. The leaves of a single tree
May differ among themselves more than they do
From other species, so you have to find,
All blandly says the book, "an average leaf."
"Learning the Trees" by Howard Nemerov
When thus the Fiend our Parents overcame,
And taught them God's commandment to transgress;
Subject to death, both they and we, became,
And to each form and species of distress.
How, the Fourth of last July,
When you got a little high,
You went back to Wilson's counter when you thought he wasn't nigh?
How he heard some specie chink,
And was on you in a wink,
And you promised if he'd hush it that you never more would drink?
"Johnny Rich" by William McKendree Carleton

### In news:

BOSTON (AP) — Arborists in the Boston area are stumped by the theft of burls, those giant knots on the trunks of most tree species prized by woodworkers for their intricate grain.
BOSTON — Arborists in the Boston area are stumped by the theft of burls, those giant knots on the trunks of most tree species prized by woodworkers for their intricate grain.
Three-banded armadillos , an endangered species indigenous to Brazil, live mainly in the arid northeast region and are threatened by habitat destruction.
How do you celebrate the 7,000th amphibian species.
Bluefin tuna anglers can assist researchers studying the species' movements and mortality in a major new collaborative study.
A global study by an international team has found that several species of tunas and billfishes are threatened and in need of further protection.
Bluefin tuna escapes endangered species list.
Bluefin Tuna Under Endangered Species Review.
The bonobos , like the chimpanzee, is very closely related to our species.
Bush Administration Proposes Changes to Endangered Species Act Rules.
What bird species is the most macho.
Researcher Says Endangered Species Could Be in for a "Very Busy Year".
There are several calla species, all native to South Africa.
I've always been conservation-minded, so naturally, I support the concept of trying to protect threatened and endangered species.
Living in low levels of light, species lacks symbiotic algae most corals need to survive.
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### In science:

Hence for a general ordering of the r species l variables and q species l − 1 variables amongst a given set of (r + q) positions in (˜al , ˜al+1 ) the phase is given by e−2π iK (A)/(r+1) .
A random matrix decimation procedure relating $\beta = 2/(r+1)$ to $\beta = 2(r+1)$
The speciﬁc choice of b∆R + (depending on our speciﬁc choice of ∆new + ) is very important.
On rationality of W-algebras
Px,y (λ1 ≤ n), which then will be specialized in the next section to speciﬁc x’s and y ’s or, what is the same, to speciﬁc t’s and s’s.
Random and Integrable Models in Mathematics and Physics
The speciﬁc case of γ = 0.9 has been used in the ﬁgure, which may be considered as a representative for this speciﬁc case.
General class of wormhole geometries in conformal Weyl gravity
The ﬁrst index in Φj,l speciﬁes the place in the lattice, and the second index speciﬁes the degree of freedom within the basis of this unit cell.
Josephson junction transmission lines as tunable artificial crystals
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