• Two men wearing distinctly different uniforms are waving identical flags with the double headed eagle emblem and are fighting each other across a river. This may be a reference to the Russo-Turkish war of 1877–1878. Two Balkan men casually watch the battle from behind a wall
    Two men wearing distinctly different uniforms are waving identical flags with the double headed eagle emblem and are fighting each other across a river. This may be a reference to the Russo-Turkish war of 1877–1878. Two Balkan men casually watch the battle from behind a wall
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v reference refer to "he referenced his colleagues' work"
    • n reference the act of referring or consulting "reference to an encyclopedia produced the answer"
    • n reference the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression; the class of objects that an expression refers to "the extension of `satellite of Mars' is the set containing only Demos and Phobos"
    • n reference the relation between a word or phrase and the object or idea it refers to "he argued that reference is a consequence of conditioned reflexes"
    • n reference (computer science) the code that identifies where a piece of information is stored
    • n reference a book to which you can refer for authoritative facts "he contributed articles to the basic reference work on that topic"
    • n reference a formal recommendation by a former employer to a potential future employer describing the person's qualifications and dependability "requests for character references are all too often answered evasively"
    • n reference a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage "the student's essay failed to list several important citations","the acknowledgments are usually printed at the front of a book","the article includes mention of similar clinical cases"
    • n reference a remark that calls attention to something or someone "she made frequent mention of her promotion","there was no mention of it","the speaker made several references to his wife"
    • n reference an indicator that orients you generally "it is used as a reference for comparing the heating and the electrical energy involved"
    • n reference a publication (or a passage from a publication) that is referred to "he carried an armful of references back to his desk","he spent hours looking for the source of that quotation"
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Peladophobia refers to the fear of bald people
    • Reference A work, or a passage in a work, to which one is referred.
    • Reference Appeal. "Make your full reference ."
    • Reference One of whom inquires can be made as to the integrity, capacity, and the like, of another.
    • Reference One who, or that which, is referred to.
    • Reference Relation; regard; respect. "Something that hath a reference to my state."
    • Reference That which refers to something; a specific direction of the attention; as, a reference in a text-book.
    • Reference The act of referring, or the state of being referred; as, reference to a chart for guidance.
    • Reference (Law) The act of submitting a matter in dispute to the judgment of one or more persons for decision.
    • Reference (Law) The process of sending any matter, for inquiry in a cause, to a master or other officer, in order that he may ascertain facts and report to the court.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Battle Creek, Michigan is referred to as the "Cereal Bowl of America." The city produces the most breakfast cereals than any other city in the world
    • n reference The act of referring. The act of assigning: as, the reference of a work to its author, or of an animal to its proper class.
    • n reference In law: The process of assigning a cause pending in court, or some particular point in a cause, to one or more persons appointed by the court under authority of law to act in place of or in aid of the court.
    • n reference Relation; respect; regard: generally in the phrase in or with reference to.
    • n reference That which is or may be referred to. A written testimonial to character or ability.
    • n reference A direction in a book or writing to refer to some other place or passage: often a mere citation, as of book, chapter, page, or text.
    • n reference Assignment; apportionment.
    • n reference An appeal.
    • reference To refer a thing to (something).
    • reference To assign proper references to, as to a phrase; look up and find by reference.
    • reference To schedule (property) to be taken for a proposed railway extension.
    • reference To make out a return of the number of people to be displaced by proposed railway extension.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The word "super" to a beekeeper refers to the hive box where the honey is stored
    • Reference the act of referring: a submitting for information or decision: relation: allusion: one who, or that which, is referred to:
    • Reference (law) the act of submitting a dispute for investigation or decision: a testimonial: a direction in a book, a quotation
    • ***


  • Aristotle
    “Personal beauty is a greater recommendation than any letter of reference.”
  • A. P. Herbert
    A. P. Herbert
    “People must not do things for fun. We are not here for fun. There is no reference to fun in any act of Parliament.”
  • Source Unknown
    Source Unknown
    “Gossip is sometimes referred to as halitosis of the mind.”
  • Albert Einstein
    “Considered logically this concept is not identical with the totality of sense impressions referred to; but it is an arbitrary creation of the human (or animal) mind.”
  • Albert Einstein
    “As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality.”
  • Aristotle
    “Praise invariably implies a reference to a higher standard.”


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
See Refer
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
O. Fr. referer (référer)—L. referre, to carry back—re-, back, ferre, to carry.


In literature:

We refer these to the object in which the undulations originate.
"Essays Towards a Theory of Knowledge" by Alexander Philip
There are three round windows fitted with thick plate-glass in the helmets to which we refer.
"Under the Waves" by R M Ballantyne
For convenience, some stories of this class have been referred to chapter VI.
"Italian Popular Tales" by Thomas Frederick Crane
The course of the carotid and subclavian vessels in reference to each other, to the surface, and to their respective surgical triangles.
"Surgical Anatomy" by Joseph Maclise
We have called the attraction of gravity a force, without any reference to motion.
"Fragments of science, V. 1-2" by John Tyndall
He also referred to the unusual difficulties with which he had to contend in writing these "Letters" to the Archdeacon.
"The Story of My Life" by Egerton Ryerson
The ideas referred to are expressed by races in the lower culture both in belief and in custom.
"The Science of Fairy Tales" by Edwin Sidney Hartland
For fuller details of the description I must refer the reader to the work already referred to.
"Aether and Gravitation" by William George Hooper
The type of that class of reference is found in a verse just before my text, 'according to the good pleasure of His will.
"Expositions of Holy Scripture" by Alexander Maclaren
These expressions refer to the connections which Chauvelin and Talleyrand had formed with the Opposition.
"William Pitt and the Great War" by John Holland Rose

In poetry:

And far away on the wreck-strewn shore
Where the crew of the Sue reside,
They never refer to Eberly Moore
Or Eberly's fair young bride.
"Eberly's Fair Young Bride" by Wallace Irwin
"My boy," he said, in tone consoling,
"Give up this idle fancy - do -
The song you heard my daughter trolling
Did not, indeed, refer to you.
"Little Oliver" by William Schwenck Gilbert
And some of 'em shuddered and looked at the door
With a sort of a nervous pride:
But they never referred to Eberly Moore
And Eberly's fair young bride.
"Eberly's Fair Young Bride" by Wallace Irwin
Watching my mother slowly die I knew
My first release. I wish some ancient bugaboo
Followed me. But my sin is always my sin.
With no special legend or God to refer to.
"My Friend, My Friend" by Anne Sexton
And if I lie, I lie because I love you,
Because I am bothered by the things I do,
Because your hurt invades my calm white skin:
With no special legend or God to refer to,
I think it would be better to be a Jew.
"My Friend, My Friend" by Anne Sexton
And I then: "Some one frames upon the keys
That exquisite nocturne, with which we explain
The night and moonshine; music which we seize
To body forth our vacuity."
She then: "Does this refer to me?"
"Oh no, it is I who am inane."
"Conversation Galante" by T S Eliot

In news:

This can be ultra violet brightness free and is often referred to self-tanning.
Some folks refer to these bait balls as red-ball minnows.
We refer to the idiotic #BaldforBieber Twitter hoax, telling millions that (a) Justin Bieber has cancer and has lost all his hair due to chemo (with Photoshopped photo of bald Biebs).
'Apt 23's' James Van Der Beek : You Can Only Make So Many Dawson References.
Time cited in new backpack mail ban," Mary Ellen Sikes did not refer to the Bible as a "2,000-year-old collection of stories".
Often referred to as "Marlin Alley," the waters off Cabo San Lucas boast the best marlin fishing in North America, and sportfishing remains Cabo 's No.
The promos are subtle and reference signature aspects of the show without using actual series footage.
I'm referring to the seven of every 10 drivers who say they like to drive, according to some poll or other I saw published recently.
An updated version of the critically acclaimed and best-selling reference work first published in 1995.
Let's review the most common terms to understand better what the different terms refer to.
South African musician Johnny Clegg - often referred to as the "white Zulu" - will perform with his band at the Cedar Cultural Center this Thursday.
Rajesh Shah named clothing store in India 'Hitler' in reference to a strict uncle.
" Corby ", as most people seem to refer to John, was Ohio born and bred.
Corby is what many would refer to as a "regular guy".
For references, please visit and click on document #141.

In science:

We refer to and references therein for a thorough discussion of the physics behind the model.
Isoperimetric inequalities and mixing time for a random walk on a random point process
We refer to for a basic reference on point processes.
Isoperimetric inequalities and mixing time for a random walk on a random point process
For a more detailed discussion about mathematical aspects and physical motivations of Mott random walk we refer to , and references therein.
Mott law as upper bound for a random walk in a random environment
For more details about the IDS we refer to the surveys or and references given there.
Lifshitz tails for a class of Schr\"odinger operators with random breather-type potential
For a detailed description of Random Geometric Graphs, their properties and applications, we refer the reader to Penrose and references therein.
Vertex Degree of Random Geometric Graph on Exponentially Distributed Points