# reason

## Definitions

• "If Uncle Sam could have me right by him to tell him the reason."
• WordNet 3.6
• v reason think logically "The children must learn to reason"
• v reason decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion "We reasoned that it was cheaper to rent than to buy a house"
• v reason present reasons and arguments
• n reason the capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination "we are told that man is endowed with reason and capable of distinguishing good from evil"
• n reason a fact that logically justifies some premise or conclusion "there is reason to believe he is lying"
• n reason an explanation of the cause of some phenomenon "the reason a steady state was never reached was that the back pressure built up too slowly"
• n reason a justification for something existing or happening "he had no cause to complain","they had good reason to rejoice"
• n reason a rational motive for a belief or action "the reason that war was declared","the grounds for their declaration"
• n reason the state of having good sense and sound judgment "his rationality may have been impaired","he had to rely less on reason than on rousing their emotions"
• ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
• Interesting fact: The reason why your nose gets runny when you are crying is because the tears from the eyes drain into the nose
• Reason A thought or a consideration offered in support of a determination or an opinion; a just ground for a conclusion or an action; that which is offered or accepted as an explanation; the efficient cause of an occurrence or a phenomenon; a motive for an action or a determination; proof, more or less decisive, for an opinion or a conclusion; principle; efficient cause; final cause; ground of argument. "I'll give him reasons for it.""The reason of the motion of the balance in a wheel watch is by the motion of the next wheel.""This reason did the ancient fathers render, why the church was called “catholic.”""Virtue and vice are not arbitrary things; but there is a natural and eternal reason for that goodness and virtue, and against vice and wickedness."
• Reason Due exercise of the reasoning faculty; accordance with, or that which is accordant with and ratified by, the mind rightly exercised; right intellectual judgment; clear and fair deductions from true principles; that which is dictated or supported by the common sense of mankind; right conduct; right; propriety; justice. "I was promised, on a time,
To have reason for my rhyme."
"But law in a free nation hath been ever public reason ; the enacted reason of a parliament, which he denying to enact, denies to govern us by that which ought to be our law; interposing his own private reason , which to us is no law.""The most probable way of bringing France to reason would be by the making an attempt on the Spanish West Indies."
• Reason Hence: To carry on a process of deduction or of induction, in order to convince or to confute; to formulate and set forth propositions and the inferences from them; to argue. "Stand still, that I may reason with you, before the Lord, of all the righteous acts of the Lord."
• Reason (Math) Ratio; proportion.
• Reason The faculty or capacity of the human mind by which it is distinguished from the intelligence of the inferior animals; the higher as distinguished from the lower cognitive faculties, sense, imagination, and memory, and in contrast to the feelings and desires. Reason comprises conception, judgment, reasoning, and the intuitional faculty. Specifically, it is the intuitional faculty, or the faculty of first truths, as distinguished from the understanding, which is called the discursive or ratiocinative faculty. "We have no other faculties of perceiving or knowing anything divine or human, but by our five senses and our reason .""In common and popular discourse, reason denotes that power by which we distinguish truth from falsehood, and right from wrong, and by which we are enabled to combine means for the attainment of particular ends.""Reason is used sometimes to express the whole of those powers which elevate man above the brutes, and constitute his rational nature, more especially, perhaps, his intellectual powers; sometimes to express the power of deduction or argumentation.""By the pure reason I mean the power by which we become possessed of principles.""The sense perceives; the understanding, in its own peculiar operation, conceives; the reason , or rationalized understanding, comprehends."
• Reason To arrange and present the reasons for or against; to examine or discuss by arguments; to debate or discuss; as, I reasoned the matter with my friend. "When they are clearly discovered, well digested, and well reasoned in every part, there is beauty in such a theory."
• Reason To converse; to compare opinions.
• Reason To exercise the rational faculty; to deduce inferences from premises; to perform the process of deduction or of induction; to ratiocinate; to reach conclusions by a systematic comparison of facts.
• Reason To find by logical processes; to explain or justify by reason or argument; -- usually with out; as, to reason out the causes of the librations of the moon.
• Reason To overcome or conquer by adducing reasons; -- with down; as, to reason down a passion.
• Reason To persuade by reasoning or argument; as, to reason one into a belief; to reason one out of his plan. "Men that will not be reasoned into their senses."
• Reason To support with reasons, as a request.
• ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
• Interesting fact: The reason why milk is white is because it contains a protein called Casein, which is white. Milk also contains fat, which is also white
• n reason An idea acting as a cause to create or confirm a belief, or to induce a voluntary action; a judgment or belief going to determine a given belief or line of conduct. A premise producing a conclusion is said to be the reason of that conclusion; a perceived fact or reflection leading to a certain line of conduct is said to be a reason for that conduct; a cognition giving rise to an emotion or other state of mind is said to be a reason of or for that state of mind.
• n reason A fact, known or supposed, from which another fact follows logically, as in consequence of some known law of nature or the general course of things; an explanation.
• n reason An intellectual faculty, or such faculties collectively. The intellectual faculties collectively.
• n reason The logical faculties generally, including all that is subservient to distinguishing truth and falsehood, except sense, imagination, and memory on the one hand, and the faculty of intuitively perceiving first principles, and other lofty faculties, on the other.
• n reason The faculty of drawing conclusions or inferences, or of reasoning.
• n reason The faculty by which we attain the knowledge of first principles; a faculty for apprehending the unconditioned.
• n reason Intelligence considered as having universal validity or a catholic character, so that it is not something that belongs to any person, but is something partaken of, a sort of light in which every mind must perceive.
• n reason That which recommends itself to enlightened intelligence; some inward intimation for which great respect is felt and which is supposed to be common to the mass of mankind; reasonable measure; moderation; right; what mature and cool reflection, taking into account the highest considerations, pronounces for, as opposed to the prompting of passion.
• n reason A reasonable thing; a rational thing to do; an idea or a statement conformable to common sense.
• n reason The exercise of reason; reasoning; right reasoning; argumentation; discussion.
• n reason The intelligible essence of a thing or species; the quiddity.
• n reason In logic, the premise or premises of an argument, especially the minor premise.
• n reason By right or justice; properly; justly.
• n reason In French history, an act of worship of human reason, represented by a woman as the goddess of Reason, performed on November 10th, 1793, in the cathedral of Notre Dame, and also in other churches (renamed temples of Rea son) in France on that and succeeding days. The worship of Reason was designed to take the place of the suppressed Christian worship; recognition of the Supreme Being was restored through the influence of Robespierre.
• n reason Agreeable to reason; reasonable; just; proper; as, I will do anything in reason.
• n reason The human understanding; the discursive reason.
• n reason See do.
• n reason Synonyms Inducement, etc. (see motive), account, object, purpose, design.
• reason To exereise the faculty of reason; make rational deductions; think or choose rationally; use intelligent discrimination.
• reason To practise reasoning in regard to something; make deductions from premises; engage in discussion; argue, or hold arguments.
• reason To hold account; make a reckoning; reckon.
• reason To hold discourse; talk; parley.
• reason To reason about; consider or discuss argumentatively; argue; debate.
• reason To give reasons for; support by argument; make a plea for: often with out: as, to reason out a proposition or a claim.
• reason To persuade by reasoning or argument.
• reason To hold argument with; engage in speech or discussion; talk with; interrogate.
• n reason An obsolete spelling of raisin. In the following passage it is apparently applied to some other fruit than the grape.
• ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
• Interesting fact: Emus and kangaroos cannot walk backwards, and are on the Australian coat of arms for that reason.
• n Reason rē′zn an idea which supports or justifies an act or belief: a motive: proof: excuse: cause: an explanation: the faculty of the mind by which man draws conclusions, and determines right and truth: the exercise of reason: just view of things: right conduct: propriety: justice: that which is conformable to reason:
• v.i Reason to exercise the faculty of reason: to deduce inferences from premises: to argue: to debate:
• v.t Reason to examine or discuss: to debate: to persuade by reasoning
• n Reason rē′zn (logic) a premise placed after its conclusion
• v.i Reason (B.) to converse
• ***

## Quotations

• Jean Jacques Rousseau
“Childhood is the sleep of reason.”
• Benjamin Franklin
“The way to see by Faith is to shut the Eye of Reason.”
• A Course In Miracles
“I am never upset for the reason I think.”
• E. M. Cioran
“Reason is a whore, surviving by simulation, versatility, and shamelessness.”
• Martin Luther
“Reason is a whore, the greatest enemy that faith has.”
• Jean Renoir
“Everyone has his reasons.”

## Idioms

Rhyme or reason - If something is without rhyme or reason, it is unreasonable. ('Beyond rhyme or reason' is an alternative.)
***

## Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. resoun, F. raison, fr. L. ratio,akin to Goth. raþjō, number, account, garaþjan, to count, G. rede, speech, reden, to speak), fr. reri, ratus, to reckon, believe, think. Cf. Arraign Rate Ratio Ration

## Usage

### In literature:

That function belongs to educated reason, but educated reason is not in the masses.
"Folkways" by William Graham Sumner
This reasoning, however, assumes that the same rays are absorbed by the liquid and its vapour.
"Fragments of science, V. 1-2" by John Tyndall
There is a remarkable contrast between the working of the pure speculative reason and that of the pure practical reason.
"The World's Greatest Books--Volume 14--Philosophy and Economics" by Various
At all events, nothing else of any kind is remembered of the pair; or could reasonably be expected to have been remembered.
"Sir Walter Ralegh" by William Stebbing
With fine reasoning the Holy Spirit discriminates between the earth and Adam.
"Commentary on Genesis, Vol. II" by Martin Luther
There were certainly reasons, and reasons of tremendous force, too, why he should have desired no such thing.
"Cotton is King and The Pro-Slavery Arguments" by Various
This would have been perfectly reasonable, but for one thing.
"Somehow Good" by William de Morgan
Pure reason had never such a power, for men were never impassioned by reason.
"Introduction to the Science of Sociology" by Robert E. Park
For this there were other reasons, of which I shall presently speak.
"The Life of Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, Bart., K.C.S.I." by Sir Leslie Stephen
The reason for this is that the fine wire would burn up if there were any air in the lamps.
"Common Science" by Carleton W. Washburne
***

### In poetry:

To this poor wanderer of the wild
Speech, reason were unknown —
And yet she watch'd a sleeping child,
As if it were her own!
"The Child and the Hind" by Thomas Campbell
O pale my lady, and were you death,
Kissing away the soul's own breath,
I would follow, for all cold Reason saith,
Even where Ruin raveneth!
"Passion" by Roden Berkeley Wriothesley Noel
I'll sing a song of leaves and rains
And flying queens and falling kings.
Yet doubt not reason still remains
Snug hidden at the core of things.
"The Fall" by Eden Phillpotts
"For, here are woods, hills smooth and warm:
There surely must one reason be
Why you would change sweet Liswyn farm
For Kilve by the green sea."
"Anecdote For Fathers" by William Wordsworth
The dreams which early moments deck'd—
Hope's sunny summer hours, are o'er;
And my frail bark at last is wreck'd
On sullen reason's rocky shore.
"Anxieties and Comforts" by John Bowring
CLARIN. Yes, I will do so, don't get angry though.
The reason you reject my bond I know:
'Tis this, because you see,
Do what I will that you are sure of me.
"The Wonder-Working Magician - Act III" by Denis Florence MacCarthy

### In news:

The fact that it's named after one of our favorite Astros ballplayers is even more reason to love Demeris Bar-B-Q's Big Puma baked potato .
Five Reasons China's Banks Are Not Taking Over The US Banking System .
The Bantam Menace A reason to be thankful this year.
When now former Royals coach Doug Sisson was fired last week, many pointed to the Royals poor base-running this season as a possible reason for his ousting.
If Pete Docter seems upbeat to you, he has one good reason.
But there is no reason to call the police.
In the short term, I would suggest that this adds to the bear's case of market weakness for the following reasons.
One key reason for the Spurs' recent success can be seen in their strong performances in the first half.
Slightly Beaten Up (Thanks, Einhorn) Chipotle Stock Starts to Resemble a Reasonable Growth Play.
Utah is becoming a bigger player in the global market, export numbers suggest, and local officials say there's no reason the climb can't continue.
Honey production by regional beekeepers is thriving, and with good reason.
Maybe the next time he comes to court, he'll leave the reason he's there at home.
Kwaske was found not guilty by reason of insanity and committed to the state forensic center.
If the reason you go to the theatre is to get lost in someone else's story for an hour or two, the characters have to be believable .
Here, a sprinkling of items making headlines in the tennis realm for one reason or another (or for debatable reasons, in some cases).
***

### In science:

We can try to obtain an expression for V on the basis of the dimensional reasons.
A String Approximation for Cooper Pair in High-T$_{\bf c}$ superconductivity
Given a transformed speciﬁcation the abductive solver will reason on it and generate an answer according to a query.
SLDNFA-system
As this is related to abductive reasoning a solver which performs abduction in a certain way is needed.
SLDNFA-system
Workshop on Non-Monotonic Reasoning. [sModels ] sModels.
SLDNFA-system
Workshop on Non-Monotonic Reasoning, special track on Abductive reasoning.
SLDNFA-system
***