• Direction of the Pad in French Polishing
    Direction of the Pad in French Polishing
  • WordNet 3.6
    • adj Polish of or relating to Poland or its people or culture "Polish sausage"
    • v polish bring to a highly developed, finished, or refined state "polish your social manners"
    • v polish improve or perfect by pruning or polishing "refine one's style of writing"
    • v polish make (a surface) shine "shine the silver, please","polish my shoes"
    • n polish the property of being smooth and shiny
    • n Polish the Slavic language of Poland
    • n polish a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality "they performed with great polish","I admired the exquisite refinement of his prose","almost an inspiration which gives to all work that finish which is almost art"--Joseph Conrad"
    • n polish a preparation used in polishing
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Polish up the spoons and the fat silver teapot Polish up the spoons and the fat silver teapot
Stones Being Polished Stones Being Polished

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Next to Warsaw, Chicago has the largest Polish population in the world
    • Polish A smooth, glossy surface, usually produced by friction; a gloss or luster. "Another prism of clearer glass and better polish ."
    • Polish Anything used to produce a gloss.
    • Polish Fig.: Refinement; elegance of manners. "This Roman polish and this smooth behavior."
    • Polish Hence, to refine; to wear off the rudeness, coarseness, or rusticity of; to make elegant and polite; as, to polish life or manners.
    • a Polish Of or pertaining to Poland or its inhabitants.
    • v. i Polish To become smooth, as from friction; to receive a gloss; to take a smooth and glossy surface; as, steel polishes well.
    • Polish To make smooth and glossy, usually by friction; to burnish; to overspread with luster; as, to polish glass, marble, metals, etc.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Singer Billy Joel tried to commit suicide when he was 21 by drinking furniture polish
    • polish To make smooth and glossy, as a surface of marble, wood, etc., whether by rubbing or by coating with varnish, etc., or in both ways. Polishing is often done with the object of bringing out the color and markings of the material, as of colored marble, agate, jasper, etc., and richly veined wood.
    • polish Figuratively, to render smooth, regular, uniform, etc.; remove roughness, inelegance, etc., from; especially, to make elegant and polite.
    • polish To beat; chastise; punish.
    • polish Synonyms To burnish, furbish, brighten, rub up.
    • polish To civilize.
    • polish To become smooth; receive a gloss; take a smooth and glossy surface.
    • polish Figuratively, to become smooth, regular, uniform, elegant, or polite.
    • n polish Smoothness of surface, produced either by friction or by the application of some varnish, or by both means combined. Polish denotes a higher degree of smoothness than gloss, and often a smoothness produced by the application of some liquid, as distinguished from that produced by friction alone.
    • n polish A substance used to give smoothness or to help in giving smoothness to any surface. See French polish, varnish-polish, etc., below.
    • n polish Smoothness; regularity; elegance; refinement; especially, elegance of style or manners.
    • n polish A liquid application prepared by dissolving gum-shellac in alcohol, or an imitation of this. It is applied with a sponge or rag, and the surface is then rubbed very thoroughly, the operation being usually repeated two or three times.
    • n polish The paste by which such a polish is produced.
    • polish Pertaining to Poland, a country of Europe, or to its inhabitants.
    • n polish The language of the Poles. It is a Slavic language belonging to the western division, nearly allied to Bohemian (Czech), and is spoken by about 10,000,000 persons in western Russia, eastern Prussia, and eastern Austria.
    • n polish Same as Polish checkers.
    • n polish A highly ornamental breed of the domestic hen, characterized especially by the large globular crest, and in most varieties having also a full muff or beard. Among the principal varieties are the white, the silver-, gold-, and buff-laced, and the white-crested black Polish, the last presenting an especially striking appearance from the contrast of their large white crests and glossy-black body-plumage.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Your fingernails can turn yellow from wearing nail polish and from the sun.
    • adj Polish pō′lish relating to Poland or to its people.
    • v.t Polish pol′ish to make smooth and glossy by rubbing: to refine: to make elegant
    • v.i Polish to become smooth and glossy
    • n Polish a smooth, glossy surface: refinement of manners: anything used to produce a polish
    • ***


  • Chinese Proverb
    Chinese Proverb
    “A gem cannot be polished without friction, nor a man perfected without trials.”
  • Anne Bradstreet
    Anne Bradstreet
    “Authority without wisdom is like a heavy ax without an edge, fitter to bruise than to polish.”
  • Michel Eyquem De Montaigne
    “It is good to rub and polish our brain against that of others.”
  • Bishop Robert South
    Bishop Robert South
    “Innocence is like polished armor; it adorns and defends.”
  • Georg C. Lichtenberg
    “He was always smoothing and polishing himself, and in the end he became blunt before he was sharp.”
  • Lord Byron
    “Society is now one polished horde, formed of two mighty tribes, the Bores and Bored.”


Polish the apples - (USA) Someone who polishes the apples with someone, tries to get into that person's favor.
Polishing peanuts - To work very hard at something for little or no return. In other words, wasting time on work which will not yield reasonable value.


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F. polir, L. polire,. Cf. Polite -ish


In literature:

Russian and Polish bee-keepers successful.
"Langstroth on the Hive and the Honey-Bee" by L. L. Langstroth
And he succeeded so far as to induce the Polish Diet to proclaim the throne vacant.
"A Modern History, From the Time of Luther to the Fall of Napoleon" by John Lord
POLISH FOWL ... 229 33.
"The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication, Vol. I." by Charles Darwin
He soon made his appearance, and more resembled a tramp than the polished official of a few moments before.
"Twenty Years of Hus'ling" by J. P. Johnston
The wood takes a fine polish; suitable for interior finishing, as there is much variety of shading in the color.
"Seasoning of Wood" by Joseph B. Wagner
They learned to cut, and peel, and scrape, and oil, and season, and polish the sticks before they were ready to use.
"The Later Cave-Men" by Katharine Elizabeth Dopp
Gilt ornaments and gilt buttons= should be polished as often as necessary in order to keep them fresh and bright.
"Manual of Military Training" by James A. Moss
Then polish with a dry cloth, and a most beautiful polish will appear.
"One Thousand Secrets of Wise and Rich Men Revealed" by C. A. Bogardus
The Polish regiments of the garrison joined the insurgents.
"A History of the Nineteenth Century, Year by Year" by Edwin Emerson
The Polish capital was gay and frivolous.
"The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte" by William Milligan Sloane

In poetry:

Of purest water its rare worth
Lay, clouded, till I met
Love, the wise jeweller, to cut,
Polish for me and set.
"Immortal Eve - IV" by Manmohan Ghose
Who can unpleased your shelves behold,
While you so fair a proof unfold,
What force the brightest genius draws
From polish'd wisdom's written laws?
"To a Lady of Quality, Fitting Up Her Library" by William Shenstone
"And, as I saw the waters shine
With polish'd splendor from the sun,
Thus gleam'd, I thought, this love of mine,
Thus shall it gleam till life is done.
"A Sunset" by Thomas Frederick Young
"The world," and none to cross his views,
"Being all before him, where to chuse,"
Upon the shining sword he ventur'd;
And in the Polish service enter'd.
"The Grenadier" by William Hutton
E'en though the best the world shall know of me,
When mouldering clay is laid with kindred clay again,
Is but a stone on which the stars shine carelessly
Smooth-polished by the fingers of the rain.
"The Helping Hand" by John O Brien
He had polished the beautiful unknown gem and set it in gold,
He had given her his name and his wealth, what more
could she ask?
When all other gifts were hers, it were surely an easy task
Her pleading spirit's restless wings to fold.
"Roses Of June" by Marietta Holley

In news:

A new nail polish that's totally hands off.
Try this recipe to polish off those chocolate hearts.
Massena pendant in polished nickel by Hudson Valley Lighting, 845-561-0300.
We're sharing a baguette and, at her recommendation, Okocim beers, a Polish brew with a label that reads "O. K. Beer Okocim".
With front man Clint Lecy Jr, Minnesota's own country-rock band, the Canyon Cowboys have been packing venues for the past half-dozen years with their blend of tight vocals, polished sound and high energy stage presence.
Obama says he regrets 'Polish death camp ' gaffe.
WARSAW, Poland – President Barack Obama has written a letter to the Polish president expressing "regret" for an inadvertent verbal gaffe that caused a storm of controversy in Poland this week.
Polish Premier Denounces Obama for Referring to a 'Polish Death Camp .
Poland's Prime Minister Donald Tusk has demanded an apology from Barack Obama, after the US president mistakenly referred to a "Polish death camp " during yesterday's Medal of Freedom ceremony.
White House Offers Regrets For President Referring To 'Polish Death Camp '.
Obama 'Polish death camp ' comment draws criticism.
Members of the Polish-American community are upset over what White House officials say was an accidental choice in words by President Barack Obama.
The Bogus Uproar Over Obama's "Polish Death Camp " Gaffe.
For most Americans, referring to a Nazi death camp located in Poland as a "Polish death camp " makes clear sense.
Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk delivers on May 30, 2012 a statement to the press in Warsaw.

In science:

Na jnowsza historia ´swiata [in Polish], eds.A.
Why everything gets slower ?
Lemma 2.1.6 The weak topology is metrizable on P(X, X) and makes P(X, X) into a Polish space (i.e., a complete, separable metric space).
Random Surfaces
Being metrizable, they are thus compact, and hence Polish (i.e., complete and separable) metric spaces for this topology.
Random Surfaces
Kolmogorov’s extension theorem for the Polish space (Ω, F τ ) then implies that there exists a measure ν ∈ P(Ω, F τ ) whose restrictions to the ∆j are in fact these measures.
Random Surfaces
The set of all Borel probability measures on a Polish space X is denoted by M(X ).
Inequalities related to free entropy derived from random matrix approximation