enzyme

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n enzyme any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n enzyme ĕn"zīm (Physiol. Chem) A protein produced by a living organism, capable of catalyzing a chemical reaction. Almost all processes in living organisms require some form of enzyme to cause the reactions to occur at a rate sufficient to support life. There are a very wide variety of enzymes, each specifically catalyzing a different chemical reaction, the sum of which cause the bulk of the physiological changes observed as life processes. Enzymes, like most proteins, are synthesized by the protein-synthetic mechanism of the living cell, at special sites on ribosomes, using the genetic information in messenger RNA transcribed from the genetic instructions stored as nuleotide sequences in the DNA (or in some viruses, the RNA) of the genome. Some examples of enzymes are: pepsin, diastase, rennet, DNA polymerase, invertase, glucose oxidase, protease, and ribonuclease. There are many other types of enzyme.The 1913 Webster defined an enzyme as: An unorganized or unformed ferment, in distinction from an organized or living ferment; a soluble, or chemical, ferment.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Enzyme any of the unorganised ferments: leavened bread—opp. to Azym (q.v.)
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Pref. en-,Gr. 'en in) + Gr. zy`mh leaven
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Gr. en, in, zymē, leaven.

Usage

In literature:

Questions relating to the enzymes, which are of the greatest importance in all these life-processes, are especially complicated.
"Darwin and Modern Science" by A.C. Seward and Others
Calhoun brought out hormones and enzymes and medicaments from the Med Ship while the guard in the ship looked on.
"This World Is Taboo" by Murray Leinster
These enzymes are at once the products and the agents of life.
"The Breath of Life" by John Burroughs
There are poisonous enzymes that poison the rest of it.
"Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the" by Various
C., which destroys the enzyme, and a 25 per cent.
"The Handbook of Soap Manufacture" by W. H. Simmons
We can predict what will happen when massive doses of hormones and enzymes and such are used.
"Anything You Can Do ..." by Gordon Randall Garrett
Two drops of a synthetic enzyme in his drink; tasteless, but extremely effective.
"Starman's Quest" by Robert Silverberg
Calhoun brought out hormones and enzymes and medicaments from the Med Ship while the guard in the ship looked on.
"Pariah Planet" by Murray Leinster
Milk contains traces of many other substances, the most important of which are several enzymes which assist in its digestion.
"The Bacillus of Long Life" by Loudon Douglas
This baby has an enzyme system that's straight from hell.
"Contamination Crew" by Alan Edward Nourse
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In news:

CEO Mark Emalfarb says the Jupiter-based company manipulates a patented fungus through its technology to create commercially viable enzymes .
In 2010, NEB scientists identified the MspJI family of restriction enzymes, which has the ability to excise small fragments of methylated DNA for use in epigenetics studies.
Brady RO, Schiffman R Enzyme replacement therapy for metablolic storage disorders.
In raw honey, the enzymes are still active and work well as a topical first aid.
Timothy Lu gets bacteria to make enzymes that attack their own biofilms, setting them up for the kill.
If you're lactose intolerant, you may have better luck with raw milk since its bacteria creates an enzyme called lactase that breaks down lactose.
Oxyrane Raises $26.5M to Take Lead Enzyme Replacement Therapy Through Phase I /II.
When the enzyme phytase was added to the diets, the digestibility of phosphorus in FSBM increased slightly to 71.9%, whereas phosphorus digestibility in conventional soybean meal increased to 71.4.
Placebo Effect Linked to Dopamine-Clearing Enzyme.
Blocking an Enzyme Boosts Chemotherapy Potency .
Researchers Determine Proinflammatory Enzyme's Role in Limiting Neutrophil Inflammation in the Lung.
The new enzyme preparation can prolonging the shelf-life of industrially produced bread by up to 15 days.
Studies on Antioxidants, Fiber, Raw Foods and Proteolytic Enzymes.
"High triglycerides are a major problem for many people and we knew the lipase enzyme had the ability to break the fats down," said Ed Schuler, BIO-CAT CEO.
FDA cleared Shire 's Gaucher disease enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), VPRIV™ (velaglucerase alfa for injection).
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In science:

W¨achtersh¨auser G (1988) Before enzymes and templates: theory of surface metabolism.
Magnetism, FeS colloids, and Origins of Life
Schallau, K., Junker, B.H.: Simulating Plant Metabolic Pathways with Enzyme-Kinetic Models.
Generalized modeling of ecological population dynamics
Genome-scale metabolic models provide a tested framework to relate genotypes (lists of enzyme-coding genes) to metabolic capabilities and phenotypes [23,24].
Randomizing genome-scale metabolic networks
This category also includes any interactions (including those with more than two interactants) where one of interactants has a biological role of MI:0501 (enzyme) or MI:0502 (enzyme target).
ppiTrim: Constructing non-redundant and up-to-date interactomes
Monte carlo simulations of enzyme reactions in two dimensions: fractal kinetics and spatial segregation.
Anomalous subdiffusion due to obstacles : A critical survey
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