It still must pass through its life cycle, but its intermediate host need not be one species of snail, fish, or copepod.
"The Lani People" by J. F. Bone
In the northern portion of their range, sei whales feed on copepods.
"Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Western North Atlantic" by Stephen Leatherwood
The prey consists chiefly of the young larvae of midges (Chironomidae) and may-flies, but small copepod and phyllopod crustacea are also captured.
"Freshwater Sponges, Hydroids & Polyzoa" by Nelson Annandale
Multifractal random walk in copepod behavior.
Random walk models associated with distributed fractional order differential equations