Fig. 4 shows a measurable deviation from the ideal 240 º phase advance per cell of the reflection coefficient, but even this error would lead to acceptable 1 % loss of accelerating efficiency. The matching of the input and output couplers over a bandwidth of 10 MHz is documented in Fig. 5.
Design of a 3 GHz Accelerator Structure for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF 3) Drive Beam
At this situation the reflection coefficient at the load is nullified and SWR (standing wave ratio) obtains its minimal unitary value. Therefore, the maximization of the general expression Ζ.(31) is also associated with SWR minimization.
"D-Dimond1", Prototype Antenna RGA-05
Thus these coefficients are aimed to reflect the non-radiative nature of E M field of bound electron within the total momentum conservation constraint and their divergence from unity has the order of magnitude (Za)2 and higher.
Going from Classical to Quantum Description of Bound Charged Particles Part 1: Basic Concepts and Assertions
It is a model problem of quantum mechanics. While in classical mechanics the reflect ion coefficient of particles passing over the step is equal to zero, this coefficient in quantum mechanics differs from zero.
Quantum Physics and Nanotechnology
To do this it is sufficient to look at the reflection coefficient at the coupler input port (as a function of frequency) in the complex plane.