• WordNet 3.6
    • adv by in reserve; not for immediate use "started setting aside money to buy a car","put something by for her old age","has a nest egg tucked away for a rainy day"
    • adv by so as to pass a given point "every hour a train goes past"
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

"The horse shot by him." "The horse shot by him."
By Slipshoe Lane to the Red Cross Inn, Reigate By Slipshoe Lane to the Red Cross Inn, Reigate
Hauling Logs by Mules. Oscilla, Georgia Hauling Logs by Mules. Oscilla, Georgia
Scribing with Knife by Try-Square Scribing with Knife by Try-Square
Lay-out by Thru Dowling Lay-out by Thru Dowling
Marking by Superposition Marking by Superposition
The friends' picnic is spoiled by the rain The friends' picnic is spoiled by the rain

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The "naked recreation and travel" industry has grown by 233% in the past decade
    • By Against.
    • By Aside; as, to lay by; to put by .
    • By In the neighborhood of; near or next to; not far from; close to; along with; as, come and sit by me. "By foundation or by shady rivulet
      He sought them both."
    • By Near to, while passing; hence, from one to the other side of; past; as, to go by a church.
    • By Near; in the neighborhood; present; as, there was no person by at the time.
    • By On; along; in traversing. Compare 5. "Long labors both by sea and land he bore.""By land, by water, they renew the charge."
    • a By Out of the common path; aside; -- used in composition, giving the meaning of something aside, secondary, or incidental, or collateral matter, a thing private or avoiding notice; as, by-line, by-place, by-play, by-street. It was formerly more freely used in composition than it is now; as, by-business, by-concernment, by-design, by-interest, etc.
    • By Passing near; going past; past; beyond; as, the procession has gone by; a bird flew by .
    • By Used in specifying adjacent dimensions; as, a cabin twenty feet by forty.
    • By With, as means, way, process, etc.; through means of; with aid of; through; through the act or agency of; as, a city is destroyed by fire; profit is made by commerce; to take by force.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: A piece of French toast that was partially eaten by Justin Timberlake sold on eBay
    • by Near; close to; beside; with; about: as, sit by me; the house stands by a river.
    • by Near, or up to and beyond, with reference to motion; past: as, to move or go by a church.
    • by Along (in direction or progress); in or through (the course of); over or alongside of: as, to approach a town by the highway.
    • by On; upon; especially, through or on as a means of conveyance: as, he journeyed both by water and by rail.
    • by Through. Through the action or operation of, as the immediate agent or the producing or instigating cause: as, the empire founded by Napoleon; a novel written by Cooper; the victories gained by Nelson; a picture painted by Rubens.
    • by With the perception of, as the subject or recipient of the action or feeling: as, he died regretted by all who knew him; this was felt by them to be an intentional slight. Through the means or agency of, as the intermediate agent or instrument: as, the city was destroyed by fire.
    • by Through the use of; with the aid of, as means: as, to take by force; by your leave.
    • by In consequence of; by virtue of.
    • by In adjuration: Before; in the presence of; with the witness of; with regard to things, in view of, in consideration of: followed by the name of the being or thing appealed to as sanction: as, I appeal to you by all that is sacred.
    • by According to; by direction, authority, example, or evidence of: as, this appears by his own account; it is ten o'clock by my watch; these are good rules to live by.
    • by In the measure or quantity of; in the terms of: as, to sell cloth by the yard, milk by the quart, eggs by the dozen, beef by the pound; to board by the week.
    • by In comparison: To the extent of: noting mensuration or the measure or ratio of excess or inferiority: as, largerby a half; older by five years; to lessen by a third.
    • by Multiplied into: noting the relation of one dimension to another (in square or cubic measure): as, five feet by four, that is, measuring five feet in one direction and four feet in the other.
    • by During the course of; within the compass or period of: as, by day; by night.
    • by At (a terminal point of time); not later than; as early as: as, by this time the sun had risen; he will be here by two o'clock.
    • by At a time; each separately or singly: as, one by one; two by two; piece by piece.
    • by With reference to; in relation to; about; concerning; with: formerly especially after say, speak, etc., now chiefly after do, act, deal, etc.
    • by Besides; over and above; beyond.
    • by Without aid; by individual action exclusively: as, I did it all by myself.
    • by [The adverbial use is not found in AS., and is rare in ME.] Near; in the same place with; at hand: often (before the verb always) qualified by a more definite adverb; as, near by; close by; hard by.
    • by Aside; off.
    • by Of motion: Across in front or alongside and beyond: as, the carriage went by.
    • by Of time: In the past; over.
    • by At once; straightway; immediately; then.
    • by At some time in the future; before long; presently.
    • n by A thing not directly aimed at; something not the immediate object of regard: as, by the by (that is, by the way, in passing).
    • n by The condition of being odd, as opposed to even; the state of having no competitor in a contest where several are engaged in pairs. Thus, in field trials of dogs, when the number of those entered for competition in pairs is uneven, the odd contestant is said to have a by.
    • n by In cricket, a run made on a ball not struck by the batsman, but which the wicket-keeper has failed to stop.
    • n by In the game of hide-and-seek, the goal: as, to touch the by.
    • n by A town; habitation; dwelling: now extant only in place-names, especially in the north of England, as in Derby (Anglo-Saxon Deóra bȳ, literally ‘dwelling of deer’), Whitby, etc.
    • n by A ring; a bracelet.
    • by An obsolete spelling of buy.
    • by An obsolete variant of be.
    • by An obsolete variant of bi-, be- (unaccented). See be-.
    • by The modern form of bi-, be-, under the accent, as in byspell, byword, etc.
    • by An obsolete variant of bi-, be-.
    • by The adverb by used as a prefix. This use first appears in the sixteenth century, by- being a quasi-adjective, meaning side, secondary, as in by-path, by-street, byway, by-play, by-stroke, etc.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The watch was invented by Peter Henlein of Nuremberg in 1510.
    • prep By at the side of: near to: through, denoting the agent, cause, means, &c
    • adv By near: passing near: in presence of: aside, away
    • n By anything of minor importance, a side issue, a thing not directly aimed at: the condition of being odd, as opposed to even, the state of being left without a competitor, as in tennis, &c.: in cricket, a run stolen by the batsman on the ball passing the wicket-keeper and long-stop, the batsman not having struck the ball
    • ***


  • John Ruskin
    “No great intellectual thing was ever done by great effort.”
  • St. Francis De Sales
    “You learn to speak by speaking, to study by studying, to run by running, to work by working; in just the same way, you learn to love by loving.”
  • Edgar F. Magnin
    Edgar F. Magnin
    “Existence was given us for action. Our worth is determined by the good deed we do, rather than by the fine emotions we feel,”
  • Source Unknown
    Source Unknown
    “You can't plow a field by turning it over in your mind.”
  • H.K. Barclay
    H.K. Barclay
    “When walking through the valley of shadows, remember, a shadow is cast by a Light.”
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson
    “Most of the shadows of this life are caused by standing in one's own sunshine”


Abide by a decision - If you abide by a decision, you accept it and comply with it, even though you might disagree with it.
Blow by blow - A blow-by-blow description gives every detail in sequence.
By a hair's breadth - If a person escapes from some danger by a hair's breadth, they only just managed to avoid it. The breadth is the thickness of a hair, so they probably feel somewhat lucky because the margin between success and what could easily have been failure was so close.
By a long chalk - (UK) If you beat somebody by a long chalk, you win easily and comfortably.
By a mile - If you miss, lose, win, etc, something by a mile, there is a considerable difference in standard oir performance between you and the others. ('By miles' is also used.)
By a whisker - If you do something by a whisker, you only just manage to do it and come very near indeed to failing.
By and large - By and large means usually or generally.
By cracky - A term used by rural folks in years past to emphasize a matter of importance or urgency. An example: 'By cracky, you need to get out there in the field with that mule and plow and finish the sod-busting before dark.'
By dint of - This means 'as a result of' or 'because of': It would be good to think he'd risen to position of Chief Executive by dint of hard work.
By heart - If you learn something by heart, you learn it word for word.
By hook or by crook - If you are prepared to do something by hook or by crook, you are willing to do anything, good or bad, to reach your goal.
By leaps and bounds - Something that happens by leaps and bounds happens very quickly in big steps.
By the back door - If something is started or introduced by the back door, then it is not done openly or by following the proper procedures.
By the book - If you do something by the book, you do it exactly as you are supposed to.
By the by - This is used as a way of introducing an incidental topic in a conversation or to say that something is irrelevant. ('By the bye' is also used.)


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. bi, AS. , big, near to, by, of, from, after, according to; akin to OS. & OFries. bi, be, D. bij, OHG. , G. bei, Goth. bi, and perh. Gr. 'amfi`. E. prefix be-, is orig. the same word. √203. See (pref.) Be-


In literature:

The former had been held by the French and the latter by the Germans.
"The Story of the Great War, Volume III (of VIII)" by Various
The pursuit by the Germans was punctuated by strong counterattacks, which inflicted great losses on them.
"The Story of the Great War, Volume II (of VIII)" by Various
Flers was captured by the British by successive pushes in which the "tanks" again demonstrated their value.
"The Story of the Great War, Volume VI (of VIII)" by Various
Bach's "Three Sonata Movements" (arranged for orchestra by W. Gericke) given by the Boston Symphony Orchestra.
"Annals of Music in America" by Henry Charles Lahee
All these meetings are convened by priests, addressed by priests, governed by priests.
"Ireland as It Is" by Robert John Buckley (AKA R.J.B.)
The Crocodile, as described by Sir Samuel Baker, conceals himself by his skill in plunging noiselessly.
"The Industries of Animals" by Frédéric Houssay
Mrs. Blake reported the work done by the Platform Committee in having suffrage resolutions endorsed by a large number of Labor Unions.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume IV" by Various
Fearing mockery, a youth is the more easily seduced by bad example the less he is put on guard by parents or true friends.
"The Sexual Question" by August Forel
These were followed by a cantata beautifully rendered by the Goeteborg choir, words and music by women.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume VI" by Various
Feeds must not be damaged by exposure to the weather, by frost, by molds, or by deleterious fermentations.
"Special Report on Diseases of Cattle" by U.S. Department of Agriculture

In poetry:

—Yet, though thus respected,
By and by
Ye do lie,
Poor girls, neglected.
"To Violets" by Robert Herrick
For her who hears
The stir of the years
Go by on the wind
By night and day;
"Why" by Bliss William Carman
By Thy Flagellation,
Flesh immaculate—
By Thine endless glory,
Manhood consummate—
"Pro Castitate" by Digby Mackworth Dolben
By all thou'lt not forget,
Fare thee well!
By the joy when first we met,
Fare thee well!
"Farewell" by Sydney Thompson Dobell
Life with the sun in it—
Shaded by gloom!
Life with the fun in it—
Shadowed by Doom!
"Life With The Sun In It" by Thomas Runciman
one more memory
I have just written a word
I am older by a word
by two
by three
by a poem
""one more memory"" by Halina Poswiatowska

In news:

An Illustrated Biography by Peter Manns, translated by Michael Shaw, with an introduction by Jaroslav Pelikan Crossroad, 223 pp.
Written and Produced by David Rummel & Lowell Bergman Reported by Lowell Bergman & Matthew Purdy Directed by David Rummel.
JV Tanagers slip by the Harrisburg Tigers by Jim Prosser In a game that was closer than the score indicated, the Vermillion Tanagers were topped by the Harrisburg Tigers 44-31 in boys basketball Dec 10 at Harrisburg.
Sexual Practices in the United States by Edward O Laumann, by John H Gagnon, by Robert T Michael, by Stuart Michaels University of Chicago Press, 718 pp.
Eros in Greece by John Boardman, by Eugenio La Rocca, photographs by Antonia Mulas The Erotic Art Book Society, 175 pp.
As the sun rises, workers prepare at the launch site, ahead of an attempt by Felix Baumgartner to break the speed of sound with his own body by jumping from a space capsule lifted by a helium balloon, Sunday, Oct 14, 2012, in Roswell, N.M.
The Real David Stockman by John Greenya, by Anne Urban, introduction by Ralph Nader St Martin's, 302 pp.
Faust by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, translated by Walter Arndt, edited by Cyrus Hamlin Norton, 626 pp.
Michael Maguire, left, and Charles Nelson Reilly star in " Strike Up the Band," a musical with book by George S Kaufman, music by George Gershwin and lyrics by Ira Gershwin, at UCLA's Freud Playhouse.
View full size Mark H. Wigg Mt Hood Winter Trails, edited by Mark H Wigg, cover art by Northwest Art Mall, cartography and graphic layout by Tom Watson.
View with a Grain of Sand: Selected Poems by Wislawa Szymborska, translated by Stanislaw Baranczak, translated by Clare Cavanagh Harcourt Brace, 214 pp.
A Life by Annie Cohen-Solal, translated by Anna Cancogni, edited by Norman MacAfee Pantheon Books, 591 pp.
A Public Theater in association with Dallas Theater Center presentation of a musical in two acts with music and lyrics by Michael John LaChiusa, book by Sybille Pearson (based on the novel by Edna Ferber).
A Disney Theatrical Productions presentation of a new musical in two acts with music by Alan Menken, lyrics by Jack Feldman, book by Harvey Fierstein, based on the Disney film written by Bob Tzudiker and Noni White.
The 20-song "feeler"-good musical by Joan Cushing, directed by Bob Hess, adapts three eco-conscious children's books by Doreen Cronin.

In science:

T (n) = X1≤i
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
As noted by AFJAN (and more references therein), heating by, e.g. central radio sources, may reduce the inferred cooling rate. (4.2) Markevitch et al. (1998, 1999) using ASCA data, derive temperature for four clusters in common with AFJAN, and find temperatures higher by ∼ 15 − 20 per cent than those derived by AFJAN.
A Moderate Cluster Cooling Flow Model
This signal can be detected by matched filtering i.e. by multiplication of the data by exp(−2πpt2 ) for a grid of prameters p followed by FFT.
Resampled random processes in gravitational-wave data analysis
The main piece of physics we draw from the model is that M and N , which determine the size and shape of the lattice world-sheet, are determined by the P + , carried by the system of field quanta propagated by the diagram, and by the time span over which that system evolves.
A Six Vertex Model on a Fishnet
We can calculate the average by constructing a grand canonical ensemble ΩGCE of microstates; the number of times a microstate C , belonging to ΩOS occurs in ΩGCE divided by the size of ΩGCE (denoted by ˆΩGCE ) is given by exp[−βE (C ) + µβN (C )]/Q.
An Introduction to Monte Carlo Simulation of Statistical physics Problem