• WordNet 3.6
    • n arteria a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n arteria In anatomy, an artery: now mostly superseded by the English form of the word. Some of the principal arteries in the names of which the Latin form is still used are: Arteria anastomotica, one of the branches of the brachial or femoral artery, forming anastomoses about the elbow or knee; arteria centralis modiolæ or retinæ, the central proper artery of the cochlea or of the retina; arteria colica dextra, media, sinistra, the artery of the ascending, transverse, and descending colon respectively; arteria comes, a companion artery of a nerve, as the phrenic and sciatic; arteria coronaria ventriculi, the proper gastric artery, a branch of the cœliac axis; arteria dorsalis hallucis, indicis, linguæ, penis, pedis, pollicis, scapulæ, the dorsal artery of the great toe, index finger, tongue, penis, foot, thumb, and shoulder-blade respectively; arteria gastro-duodenalis, arteria gastro-epiploica, two arteries of the stomach and associate parts; arteria innominata, innominate artery, or anonyma, the first great arterial branch of the arch of the aosta, on the right side; arteria pancreatica magna, parva, arteriæ pancreaticoduodenales, superior et inferior, large and small pancreatic arteries, and the superior and inferior arteries of the pancreas and duodenum; arteria princeps cervicis, pollicis, the principal branch of the occipital artery for the back of the neck, and the principal artery of the thumb, respectively; arteria profunda humeri, superior et inferior, cervicis, femoris, the superior and inferior deep branches of the brachial artery, the deep cervical branch of the first intercostal artery, and the deep branch of the femoral artery, respectively; arteria sacra media, the middle sacral artery, the continuation of the abdominal aorta after giving off the iliac arteries; arteria superficialis volæ, a small artery of the ball of the thumb, a branch of the radial, usually continuous with the superficial palmar arch; arteria transversalis colli, a branch of the thyroid axis which traverses the root of the neck and ends in the posterior scapular artery.
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In literature:

He did not use the word "arteria" (arthria) for either of them.
"The Evolution of Modern Medicine" by William Osler
The arteria innominata, the carotid, and subclavian arteries, were uncommonly large and thick.
"Cases of Organic Diseases of the Heart" by John Collins Warren
Why do we call the common trunk of the right subclavian and carotid, the arteria innominata?
"North American Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, July, 1826" by Various
The neck contains the spine, the gullet, and the arteria (or windpipe).
"Lives of Eminent Zoologists, from Aristotle to Linnæus" by William MacGillivray