• WordNet 3.6
    • n Tsuga hemlock; hemlock fir; hemlock spruce
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n tsuga A genus of coniferous trees, of the tribe Abietineæ, including the hemlocks, and intermediate between Picea, the spruce, and Abies, the fir. Its staminate flowers and its seemingly two-ranked flat linear leaves resemble those of Abies, but it agrees with Picea instead in its persistent petiole-bases and in its reflexed cones with persistent scales. The 6 species are evergreens with slender flat or often pendulous branchlets, and narrowly linear leaves, flat above (convex or keeled in T. Pattoniana), and spirally inserted, but spreading in two ranks. The main branches are mostly horizontal, and are irregularly inserted, not whorled as in the fir and spruce. They are tall trees (excepting T. Caroliniana), reaching 80 to 100 feet high, with large cylindrical trunks and thick brown bark, which is deep-red within. The cones are small and brown, an inch or less long, or in T. Pattoniana cylindrical and 2 or 3 inches long; in this and in T. Mertensiana they are bright-purple until ripe. Two species are found on the Atlantic and 2 on the Pacific side of North America, and 2 in Asia. In each case one of the two species is interior, alpine, and more or less local, while the other is more wide-spread, and approaches the coast. T. Canadensis, the hemlockspruce, is most highly developed in the Alleghany range, extending south to Alabama, and forming the larger part of the dense forests northward. Its trunk is often 3, sometimes 6, feet in diameter, forming in the oldest trees a nearly uniform shaft for two thirds of its length. It furnishes the principal tanbark of the eastern United States, and a coarse wood, the red and the white hemlock of lumbermen. It is the source of hemlock-pitch, used in stimulating plasters, and of a fluid extract sometimes used as an astringent. It is now planted for hedges and to ornament lawns in the eastern States, also in Europe and Australia, and is much admired in its earlier growth for its delicate spray with light-green leaves silvery beneath, and hung with small oval brown cones about the ends of the branches. (See cut under imbricate.) In middle life the long-persistent dead lower branches often render it unsightly, and impair the value of the wood. T. Caroliniana is the Carolina hemlock, a small and rare tree of dry rocky ridges in the Carolinas, having larger, glossier, blunter leaves, and larger cones with widespreading scales. T. Mertensiana, the western hemlock, forms large forests in Oregon, extending to Montana and Alaska; it yields the principal tanning-material of the northwestern States and a coarse inferior lumber; it excels the eastern species in its size, being sometimes 150 feet high and 12 feet in diameter. T Pattoniana, the alpine spruce, occurring locally from British Columbia to California, sometimes 7 feet in diameter, peculiar in the deflexed base of its spreading branches and its finer satiny wood, is exceptional in the genus in its scattered quadrangular leaves, with the persistent petiole-base hardly prominent, two-lobed pollen-grains like those of pines, and large leather-brown cones with their scales reflexed. It is therefore separated by Lemmon (1890) as a genus, Hesperopeuce. T. Araragi (T. Sieboldii) of Japan, the original species, forms large forests on Fusiyama and other mountains, is planted about temples, and yields a finegrained yellowish timber, much used by the Japanese and Chinese for turning and for furniture. Its variety nana, a dwarf species 2 or 3 feet high, known as fime tsuga, is there a favorite garden shrub. T. dumosa (T. Brunoniana), the tang-sing of Bhutan—a tall tree with graceful drooping branchlets, used for incense by the Hindus—is one of the handsomest forest-trees of the Himalayas, often growing to from 6 to 8 feet in diameter.
    • n tsuga A tree of this genus.
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In literature:

"The Forests of Mount Rainier National Park" by Grenville F. Allen

In news:

The state Department of Environmental Conservation announced today an exotic pest, Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae), is expanding its attack on forests.
TOKYO — In a presentation beamed to Panasonic offices around the world last week, Kazuhiro Tsuga, the company's president, stunned middle managers with the blunt message that their bonuses would be cut more than a third.