• WordNet 3.6
    • n Pliocene from 13 million to 2 million years ago; growth of mountains; cooling of climate; more and larger mammals
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • a Pliocene (Geol) Of, pertaining to, or characterizing, the most recent division of the Tertiary age.
    • n Pliocene (Geol) The Pliocene period or deposits.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n Pliocene In geology, the most recent of the divisions of the Tertiary proper. See Tertiary. Also spelled Pleiocene.
    • n Pliocene It was the final period of Tertiary time, during which the distribution of land and sea was very much as it is now. The uptilted deposits of this age, which are of world-wide distribution, consist of mostly unconsolidated sands, clays, and marls of marine and terrestrial origin, containing invertebrate and plant remains very similar to those of the present. The vertebrate fauna, on the other hand, differs widely, with numerous extinct types of large size, among which Dinotherium, Mastodon, Elephas, Equus, Hippopotamus, Rhinoceros, and Machærodus were of gigantic proportions. The Pliocene of southern Europe has been divided into the following stages: lower, Messinian or Plaisancian; middle, Astian; upper, Arnusian or Sicilian. In North America, marine deposits of this age are represented by the Floridian series of the Gulf coast and the Merced and San Pedro series of the Pacific coast; and the terrestrial deposits by the Palo Duro and Blanco beds of Texas and Oklahoma.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Pliocene plī′o-sēn (geol.) the strata more recent than the Miocene or Second Tertiary.
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Gr. more + new, recent
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Gr. pleiōn, more, kainos, recent.


In literature:

Small patches of Pliocene strata are found at St Erth and St Agnes Beacon.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 4" by Various
These comprise three series, called the Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene, the Eocene being the oldest.
"Earth and Sky Every Child Should Know" by Julia Ellen Rogers
Some facts, however, seemed to indicate a residence of man in Sweden before the great post-pliocene subsidence.
"The Origin of the World According to Revelation and Science" by John William Dawson
Subapennine is applied geologically to a series of strata of the Older Pliocene Period.
"Principles of Geology" by Charles Lyell
But whether we call it pliocene or pleistocene really matters little.
"The History of the European Fauna" by R. F. Scharff
There's a regular Eocene and Pliocene mixture over there which is really typical.
"The Tremendous Event" by Maurice Leblanc
The existence of marine Pliocene in Cuba has not been proved.
"The History of Cuba, vol. 1" by Willis Fletcher Johnson
But the great movement was in the main earlier than the Pliocene.
"The Geological Story of the Isle of Wight" by J. Cecil Hughes
Post-Pliocene, including those of the Recent, or human period.
"A Manual of Elementary Geology" by Charles Lyell
Fossil remains of extinct bears first occur in strata of the Pliocene age.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Slice 4" by Various

In poetry:

"Speak, O man, less recent! Fragmentary fossil!
Primal pioneer of pliocene formation,
Hid in lowest drifts below the earliest stratum
Of volcanic tufa!
"To The Pliocene Skull" by Francis Bret Harte
Even as I gazed, a thrill of the maxilla,
And a lateral movement of the condyloid process,
With post-pliocene sounds of healthy mastication,
Ground the teeth together.
"To The Pliocene Skull" by Francis Bret Harte

In news:

Comparing Earth's current warming to the Pliocene.
The early Pliocene period might be the best analog for the warmer world scientists expect in the not-too-distant future.
Comparing Earth's current warming to the Pliocene .
The discovery of a 4.4-million-year-old hominid named Ardipithecus ramidus (fondly shortened to "Ardi") suggests that for a stretch during the early Pliocene, our ancestors instead lived in lush woodlands and walked on two feet.
Director Gary Griggs wrote back and said that the fossils in the photo were most likely from an extinct Pliocene-era whale.

In science:

Isotopic evidence for an early shift to C4 resources by Pliocene hominins in Chad.
Stable isotopes, functional morphology, and human evolution: a model of consilience
Climate evolution in the pliocene and pleistocene from marine-sediment records and simulations - internal variability versus orbital forcing.
A selection of papers with some relevance to the investigation of the Sun-Climate link: Papers on Data, Methods and Commentary