By-law

Definitions

  • Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • By-law A law that is less important than a general law or constitutional provision, and subsidiary to it; a rule relating to a matter of detail; as, civic societies often adopt a constitution and by-laws for the government of their members. In this sense the word has probably been influenced by by, meaning secondary or aside.
    • By-law A local or subordinate law; a private law or regulation made by a corporation for its own government. "There was likewise a law to restrain the by-laws , or ordinances of corporations.""The law or institution; to which are added two by-laws , as a comment upon the general law."
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: By law, information collected in a U.S. census must remain confidential for seventy-two years
    • n by-law A local law; a law made by a municipality or by a rural community for the regulation of affairs within its authority; an ordinance.
    • n by-law Hence A standing rule of a legislative body, a corporation, or a society, made for the regulation of its internal organization and conduct, and distinguished from a provision of its constitution in being more particular and more readily altered.
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Quotations

  • Audrey Hepburn
    Audrey Hepburn
    “I probably hold the distinction of being one movie star who, by all laws of logic, should never have made it. At each stage of my career, I lacked the experience.”
  • George Bernard Shaw
    George%20Bernard%20Shaw
    “Men are not governed by justice, but by law or persuasion. When they refuse to be governed by law or persuasion, they have to be governed by force or fraud, or both.”
  • Buddha
    Buddha
    “Never in this world can hatred be stilled by hatred; it will be stilled only by non-hatred -- this is the law of eternal.”
  • Bertolt Brecht
    Bertolt%20Brecht
    “The law was made for one thing alone, for the exploitation of those who don't understand it, or are prevented by naked misery from obeying it.”
  • James Clerk Maxwell
    James Clerk Maxwell
    “The only laws of matter are those that our minds must fabricate and the only laws of mind are fabricated for it by matter.”
  • Theodore Roosevelt
    Theodore%20Roosevelt
    “It is difficult to make our material condition better by the best law, but it is easy enough to ruin it by bad laws.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Cf. Sw. bylag, D. bylov, Icel. bȳarlög, fr. Sw. & Dan. by, town, Icel. bær, byr,fr. bûa, to dwell) + the word for law,; hence, a law for one town, a special law. Cf. Birlaw and see Law

Usage

In literature:

The rates were published, as required by law, and June 28, 1888, was fixed as the day on which they were to take effect.
"The Railroad Question" by William Larrabee
If you say by law, he says that law has no more to do with it than religion.
"The Soul of a People" by H. Fielding
Their franchise is confined to municipalities, which can only make by-laws that relate to the execution of existing laws.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume IV" by Various
There is one question, however, which arises: Can prostitution in itself be regarded as a misdemeanor punishable by law?
"The Sexual Question" by August Forel
Both sides were required by law to file at the State House a record of their campaign expenses.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume VI" by Various
Parliament saw the issue as order, government by law, protection of private property, and even treason.
"The Road to Independence: Virginia 1763-1783" by Virginia State Dept. of Education
It was shown by Kant that all physical laws depend for their validity on logical laws.
"The Religious Sentiment" by Daniel G. Brinton
The exposure of children, common to both Greeks and Romans, was finally forbidden by law.
"History of Human Society" by Frank W. Blackmar
It is not to be effected by laws, by punishment, by prison and sword.
"Epistle Sermons, Vol. III" by Martin Luther
In France, divorce has been regulated anew by law since 1884.
"Woman under socialism" by August Bebel
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In poetry:

Where a purer people,
Led by laws innate,
Shall, towards the heavens,
Tower in grander state.
"Invocation" by Mathilde Blind
All things are ruled by law;
'Tis only in man's will
You meet a feeble flaw;
But fate is weaving still
"Inevitable" by Abram Joseph Ryan
How sad if, by some strange new law,
All kisses scarred!
For she who is most beautiful
Would be most marred.
"Suppose" by Anne Reeve Aldrich
To thee, before the dawning light
My gracious God, I pray;
I meditate thy name by night,
And keep thy law by day.
"Psalm 119 part 2" by Isaac Watts
We are exposed all day to die
As martyrs for thy cause,
As sheep for slaughter bound we lie
By sharp and bloody laws.
"Psalm 44" by Isaac Watts
`But we are pressed by heavy laws;
And often, glad no more,
We wear a face of joy, because
We have been glad of yore.
"The Fountain" by William Wordsworth

In news:

Recently law enforcement nationwide has been responding to calls reporting victims having their computers " locked " by the FBI and/or local law enforcement.
Clayton won a 735,000 dollar lottery prize last fall, but did not inform the state as required by law.
Malcolm may have publicly commanded his followers to obey the law, but this did little to lessen suspicion of the Muslims by law enforcement in major cities.
In advance of setting the "not-to-exceed" tax rate as required by law, Cape Coral City Council is scheduled to hear a staff presentation on the millage on Monday.
In advance of setting the "not-to-exceed" tax rate as required by law, Cape Coral City Council is scheduled to hear a staff presentation on the millage on Monda.
Supreme Discomfort Caused by Law Professor's Internet Privacy Project.
In most of the civilized world, that is determined, not by physical or mental maturity , but rather by law.
The number of medallions has been frozen since 1937 so by law there are only 11,787 medallions , which license cabs to pick up street hails, in the city.
If so, we shall all be required by law to run outside and fall on our knees and praise the Rain Gods (I'm just sayin').
The obviously fraudulent applications filed by a vendor hired by the Republican Party of Florida have gained wide attention in a case that’s now being investigated by law enforcement.
The obviously fraudulent applications filed by a vendor hired by the Republican Party of Florida have gained wide attention in a case that's now being investigated by law enforcement.
More than half of folks who are required by law to take money out of their Individual Retirement Accounts by year end had failed to do so as of November 9th, according to Fidelity Investments.
On January 4, 2011, President Obama signed into law the most comprehensive food safety reform in US history: the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA, pronounced "fizz-ma" by those working to implement the law).
Going against a trend in Africa, Malawi's government is moving to suspend laws against homosexuality and has ordered police not to arrest people for same-sex acts until the anti-gay laws are reviewed by parliament.
The Maryland State Police are reminding drivers of the state's Move Over law after two law enforcement officers have been hit by drivers recently.
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In science:

J. A. Wheeler, “Law without law,” in Quantum Theory and Experiment, ed. by J. A.
Bell's theorem, entanglement, and common sense
By Brownian scaling, the law of H− (h) is identical to the law of hH+ (1), so we only need to show that the law of H+ (1) is uniform on [0, 1].
Aging properties of Sinai's model of random walk in random environment
For x ∈ Rn , let Px denote the law of B started at x; for x ∈ W , let ˆPx denote the law of the h-transform of B started at x, where h is given by (3).
Random matrices, non-colliding processes and queues
For those shells that do achieve breakout and have traveled far relative to the initial stellar radius, all quantities follow a power-law determined by the slope in the infall density law.
Trapped Protostellar Winds and their Breakout
Can you say what the law of the environment is on the basis of the information supplied by this single tra jectory? Can you determine the law of the walk? Such questions may arise if one intends to use the random environment model in applications.
Random walks in random environment: What a single trajectory tells
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