# work

## Definitions

• Two Blacksmiths Working the Bellows
• WordNet 3.6
• v work give a workout to "Some parents exercise their infants","My personal trainer works me hard","work one's muscles","this puzzle will exercise your mind"
• v work arrive at a certain condition through repeated motion "The stitches of the hem worked loose after she wore the skirt many times"
• v work go sour or spoil "The milk has soured","The wine worked","The cream has turned--we have to throw it out"
• v work cause to undergo fermentation "We ferment the grapes for a very long time to achieve high alcohol content","The vintner worked the wine in big oak vats"
• v work find the solution to (a problem or question) or understand the meaning of "did you solve the problem?","Work out your problems with the boss","this unpleasant situation isn't going to work itself out","did you get it?","Did you get my meaning?","He could not work the math problem"
• v work use or manipulate to one's advantage "He exploit the new taxation system","She knows how to work the system","he works his parents for sympathy"
• v work make uniform "knead dough","work the clay until it is soft"
• v work perform as expected when applied "The washing machine won't go unless it's plugged in","Does this old car still run well?","This old radio doesn't work anymore"
• v work move into or onto "work the raisins into the dough","the student worked a few jokes into his presentation","work the body onto the flatbed truck"
• v work cause to happen or to occur as a consequence "I cannot work a miracle","wreak havoc","bring comments","play a joke","The rain brought relief to the drought-stricken area"
• v work make something, usually for a specific function "She molded the rice balls carefully","Form cylinders from the dough","shape a figure","Work the metal into a sword"
• v work shape, form, or improve a material "work stone into tools","process iron","work the metal"
• v work prepare for crops "Work the soil","cultivate the land"
• v work gratify and charm, usually in order to influence "the political candidate worked the crowds"
• v work move in an agitated manner "His fingers worked with tension"
• v work proceed along a path "work one's way through the crowd","make one's way into the forest"
• v work provoke or excite "The rock musician worked the crowd of young girls into a frenzy"
• v work proceed towards a goal or along a path or through an activity "work your way through every problem or task","She was working on her second martini when the guests arrived","Start from the bottom and work towards the top"
• v work cause to work "he is working his servants hard"
• v work be employed "Is your husband working again?","My wife never worked","Do you want to work after the age of 60?","She never did any work because she inherited a lot of money","She works as a waitress to put herself through college"
• v work exert oneself by doing mental or physical work for a purpose or out of necessity "I will work hard to improve my grades","she worked hard for better living conditions for the poor"
• v work cause to operate or function "This pilot works the controls","Can you work an electric drill?"
• v work operate in or through "Work the phones"
• v work have an effect or outcome; often the one desired or expected "The voting process doesn't work as well as people thought","How does your idea work in practice?","This method doesn't work","The breaks of my new car act quickly","The medicine works only if you take it with a lot of water"
• v work have and exert influence or effect "The artist's work influenced the young painter","She worked on her friends to support the political candidate"
• v work operate in a certain place, area, or specialty "She works the night clubs","The salesman works the Midwest","This artist works mostly in acrylics"
• v work behave in a certain way when handled "This dough does not work easily","The soft metal works well"
• n work activity directed toward making or doing something "she checked several points needing further work"
• n work the occupation for which you are paid "he is looking for employment","a lot of people are out of work"
• n work the total output of a writer or artist (or a substantial part of it) "he studied the entire Wagnerian oeuvre","Picasso's work can be divided into periods"
• n work a product produced or accomplished through the effort or activity or agency of a person or thing "it is not regarded as one of his more memorable works","the symphony was hailed as an ingenious work","he was indebted to the pioneering work of John Dewey","the work of an active imagination","erosion is the work of wind or water over time"
• n work a place where work is done "he arrived at work early today"
• n work applying the mind to learning and understanding a subject (especially by reading) "mastering a second language requires a lot of work","no schools offer graduate study in interior design"
• n work (physics) a manifestation of energy; the transfer of energy from one physical system to another expressed as the product of a force and the distance through which it moves a body in the direction of that force "work equals force times distance"
• ***

Two FellahÎn Work the Shadouf in a Garden
the Mining Works of Wady Maghara
THE WORK OF A TORPEDO
A PEASANT AT WORK, DISTRICT OF TSARIBROD
Work of Ambrosia Beetles in Oak
Work of Timber Worms in Oak
Sliding Down to Work

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
• Interesting fact: In the USA, 32% of employees eat lunch and work at the same time
• Work (Cricket) Break; twist.
• Work Exertion of strength or faculties; physical or intellectual effort directed to an end; industrial activity; toil; employment; sometimes, specifically, physical labor. "Man hath his daily work of body or mind
Appointed."
• Work Hence, figuratively, to be effective; to have effect or influence; to conduce. "We know that all things work together for good to them that love God.""This so wrought upon the child, that afterwards he desired to be taught.""She marveled how she could ever have been wrought upon to marry him."
• Work Hence, in a general sense, to operate; to act; to perform; as, a machine works well. "We bend to that the working of the heart."
• Work Manner of working; management; treatment; as, unskillful work spoiled the effect.
• Work (Mining) Ore before it is dressed.
• Work (Script) Performance of moral duties; righteous conduct. "He shall reward every man according to his works .""Faith, if it hath not works , is dead."
• Work Specifically: That which is produced by mental labor; a composition; a book; as, a work, or the works, of Addison. Flowers, figures, or the like, wrought with the needle; embroidery. "I am glad I have found this napkin; . . . I'll have the work ta'en out,
And give 't Iago."
• Work Structures in civil, military, or naval engineering, as docks, bridges, embankments, trenches, fortifications, and the like; also, the structures and grounds of a manufacturing establishment; as, iron works; locomotive works; gas works .
• Work That which is produced as the result of labor; anything accomplished by exertion or toil; product; performance; fabric; manufacture; in a more general sense, act, deed, service, effect, result, achievement, feat. "To leave no rubs or blotches in the work .""The work some praise,
And some the architect."
"Fancy . . . Wild work produces oft, and most in dreams.""The composition or dissolution of mixed bodies . . . is the chief work of elements."
• Work (Mech) The causing of motion against a resisting force, measured by the product of the force into the component of the motion resolved along the direction of the force. "Energy is the capacity of doing work . . . . Work is the transference of energy from one system to another."
• Work (Mech) The causing of motion against a resisting force. The amount of work is proportioned to, and is measured by, the product of the force into the amount of motion along the direction of the force. See Conservation of energy, under Conservation Unit of work, under Unit, also Foot pound Horse power Poundal, and Erg. "Energy is the capacity of doing work . . . Work is the transference of energy from one system to another."
• Work The matter on which one is at work; that upon which one spends labor; material for working upon; subject of exertion; the thing occupying one; business; duty; as, to take up one's work; to drop one's work . "Come on, Nerissa; I have work in hand
That you yet know not of."
"In every work that he began . . . he did it with all his heart, and prospered."
• Work The moving parts of a mechanism; as, the works of a watch.
• Work To act or operate on the stomach and bowels, as a cathartic. "Purges . . . work best, that is, cause the blood so to do, . . . in warm weather or in a warm room."
• Work To be in a state of severe exertion, or as if in such a state; to be tossed or agitated; to move heavily; to strain; to labor; as, a ship works in a heavy sea. "Confused with working sands and rolling waves."
• Work To carry on business; to be engaged or employed customarily; to perform the part of a laborer; to labor; to toil. "They that work in fine flax . . . shall be confounded."
• Work To cause to ferment, as liquor.
• Work To exert one's self for a purpose; to put forth effort for the attainment of an object; to labor; to be engaged in the performance of a task, a duty, or the like. "O thou good Kent, how shall I live and work ,
To match thy goodness?"
"Go therefore now, and work ; for there shall no straw be given you.""Whether we work or play, or sleep or wake,
Our life doth pass."
• Work To ferment, as a liquid. "The working of beer when the barm is put in."
• Work To form with a needle and thread or yarn; especially, to embroider; as, to work muslin.
• Work To influence by acting upon; to prevail upon; to manage; to lead. "Work your royal father to his ruin."
• Work To labor or operate upon; to give exertion and effort to; to prepare for use, or to utilize, by labor. "He could have told them of two or three gold mines, and a silver mine, and given the reason why they forbare to work them at that time."
• Work To make one's way slowly and with difficulty; to move or penetrate laboriously; to proceed with effort; -- with a following preposition, as down out into up through, and the like; as, scheme works out by degrees; to work into the earth. "Till body up to spirit work , in bounds
Proportioned to each kind."
• Work To produce by slow degrees, or as if laboriously; to bring gradually into any state by action or motion. "Sidelong he works his way.""So the pure, limpid stream, when foul with stains
Of rushing torrents and descending rains, Works itself clear, and as it runs, refines,
Till by degrees the floating mirror shines."
• Work To produce or form by labor; to bring forth by exertion or toil; to accomplish; to originate; to effect; as, to work wood or iron into a form desired, or into a utensil; to work cotton or wool into cloth. "Each herb he knew, that works or good or ill."
• Work To set in motion or action; to direct the action of; to keep at work; to govern; to manage; as, to work a machine. "Knowledge in building and working ships.""Now, Marcus, thy virtue's the proof;
Put forth thy utmost strength, work every nerve."
"The mariners all 'gan work the ropes,
Where they were wont to do."
• ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
• Interesting fact: Termites work 24 hours per day -- they do not sleep
• work Nautical, to move slightly, as a structural part of a vessel, with reference to adjacent parts; change form slightly, as a vessel: due to the strains brought upon a vessel that is rolling or pitching at sea.
• work In machin., to have an undesired motion due to defective fitting of the bearing, guiding, or supporting areas of contact, or from wear.
• work In horticulture, to graft or to bud.
• n work A movement of strata of the earth upon one another which causes creeping, squeezing, or faulting of the veins or lodes in a mine.
• work To put forth effort for the accomplishment of something; exert one's self in the performance of some service; labor; toil; strive: as, to work ten hours a day.
• work To act; operate; carry on or perform a function; operate effectively; prove practicable: as, the pump will not work; a plan or system that works well; the charm works.
• work To ferment, as liquors.
• work To be agitated or in a state of restless movement or commotion; seethe; toss; rage.
• work To make way laboriously and slowly; make progress, become, or get with exertion and difficulty: generally followed by an adjective, or by an adverb of direction, as along, down. into, out, through, up, etc.: as, to work loose; to work out; to work up.
• work To carry on systematic operations in some department of human activity, especially as a means of earning a livelihood; be regularly engaged or employed in some operation, trade, profession, or business: as, to work in brass or iron.
• work To do something; specifically, to be employed in handiwork, as in knitting, sewing, or embroidery.
• work To blossom, as water; become full of some vegetable substance. See the quotation.
• work To rely on.
• work Synonyms Act, Work, etc. See act.
• work To prepare by labor; manipulate: as, to work soil or clay.
• work To convert to use by labor or effort; operate: as, to work a quarry; to work a scheme.
• work To make; form; fashion; execute; mold.
• work To decorate or ornament, as with needlework; embroider.
• work To do, perform, or accomplish; bring about; effect; produce; cause: as, to work mischief; to work a change; to work wonders.
• work To put or set in motion or action: as, to work one's fingers.
• work To direct the action or movements of; manage; handle: as, to work a sawmill.
• work In music, to handle or treat (a voice-part or a theme).
• work To bring by action or motion into some particular state, usually indicated by an adverb or adverbial adjunct, as in, out, over, up, etc. See phrases below.
• work To manage or turn to some particular course or way of thinking or acting by insidious means; influence in some respect by plying with arguments, urgings, threats, bribes, etc.; prevail on or gain over; induce; persuade; lead: as, to work the committee; to work the jury
• work To excite by degrees; bring into a state of perturbation or passion; provoke; agitate.
• work To succeed in effecting, attaining, or making; win by labor; achieve: as, to work a passage through something.
• work To endeavor; attempt; try.
• work To operate on, as a purgative or other drug; purge.
• work To ply one's trade, calling, vocation, or business in; carry on operations in or on: as, to work a district in canvassing for a publication.
• work To exact labor or service from; keep busy or employed: as, he works his horses too hard.
• work To solve: as, to work a sum in arithmetic or a problem in algebra.
• work To cause to ferment: said of anything which is put into a liquid for that purpose.
• work To cause to enter or penetrate by repeated efforts: as, the wire was slowly worked, in.
• work To change or alter by gradual process or influence.
• work To elaborate; develop; reduce to order; study out.
• work To solve, as a problem.
• work To erase; efface; remove.
• work To exhanst: as, to work out a mine or quarry.
• work To use up in the process of manufacture or the like; expend in any work: as, we have worked up all our materials.
• work To expand; enlarge; elaborate: as, to work up a story or an article from a few hints.
• work To master by carefnl study or research: as, to work up a theme.
• work To achieve or attain by special effort: as, to work up a reputation for one's self.
• work Nautical, to discipline or punish by setting at an unnecessary or hateful job, like scraping the anchor-chain. Such a piece of work is called a working-up job.
• n work Effort or exertion directed to the accomplishment of some purpose or end; expenditure of strength, energy, etc.; toil; labor; striving.
• n work Opportunity of expending labor (physical or mental) in some useful or remunerative way, especially as a means of earning a livelihood; employment; something to do: as, to be out of work; to look for work.
• n work That upon which one is employed or engaged, and in the accomplishment of which labor is expended or some operation performed; a task, undertaking, enterprise, or project.
• ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
• Interesting fact: The complete works of Shakespeare can be stored on 5 Megabytes.
• n Work wurk effort directed to an end: employment: the result of work: that on which one works: anything made or done: embroidery: deed: effect: a literary composition: a book: management: an establishment for any manufacture, a factory (gener. in pl.): : :
• v.i Work to make efforts to attain anything: to perform: to be in action: to be occupied in business or labour: to produce effects, to make progress with difficulty, to strain or labour: to ferment: to be agitated, to seethe: to embroider
• v.t Work to make by labour: to bring into any state by action: to effect: to carry on operations in: to put in motion: to purge: to influence: to manage: to solve: to achieve: to cause to ferment: to provoke, agitate: to keep employed: to embroider:—pa.t. and pa.p. worked or wrought (rawt)
• adj Work pertaining to a work-day
• adj Work active: labouring: connected with labour
• adv Work in a manner becoming a skilful workman
• n Work wurk (physics) the product of a force by the component displacement of its point and application in the direction of the force
• n Work wurk (pl.) , (fort.) walls, trenches, &c.
• n Work wurk (theol.) acts performed in obedience to the Divine law: a manufactory, workshop, place of work (esp. in pl.): mechanism—e.g. of a watch
• ***

## Quotations

• Alexander Pope
“An honest man's the noblest work of God.”
• Gerald Waterhouse
“You can't make wrong work.”
• Jim Rohn
“Work harder on yourself than you do on your job.”
• Thomas Carlyle
“He that can work is born to be king of something.”
• Rene Dubos
“More can be learned from what works than from what fails.”
• Frank Tyger
“When you like your work every day is a holiday.”

## Idioms

All in a day's work - If something is all in a day's work, it is nothing special.
***
Devil finds work for idle hands - When people say that the devil finds work for idle hands, they mean that if people don't have anything to do with their time, they are more likely to get involved in trouble and criminality.
***
Do their dirty work - Someone who does someone's dirty work, carries out the unpleasant jobs that the first person doesn't want to do. Someone who seems to enjoy doing this is sometimes known as a 'henchman'.
***
Donkey work - Donkey work is any hard, boring work or task.
***
Have your work cut out - If you have your work cut out, you are very busy indeed.
***
Many hands make light work - This idiom means that when everyone gets involved in something, the work gets done quickly.
***
Noddy work - (UK) Unimportant or very simple tasks are noddy work.
***
Spanner in the works - (UK) If someone puts or throws a spanner in the works, they ruin a plan. In American English, 'wrench' is used instead of 'spanner'.
***
Throw a monkey wrench into the works - (USA) If you throw a monkey wrench into the works, you ensure that something fails.
***
Throw a spanner in the works - (UK) If you throw a spanner in the works, you cause a problem that stops or slows progress on something that was going well.
***
Work like a charm - If something works like a charm, it works perfectly.
***
Work like a dog - If you work like a dog, you work very hard.
***
Work the system - If people work the system, they exploit the state or similar setup to their advantage.
***
Work your fingers to the bone - If you work your fingers to the bone, you work extremely hard on something.
***
Work your socks off - If you work your socks off, you work very hard.
***

## Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. work, werk, weorc, AS. weorc, worc,; akin to OFries. werk, wirk, OS., D., & G. werk, OHG. werc, werah, Icel. & Sw. verk, Dan. værk, Goth. gawaúrki, Gr. 'ergon, ϝergon, work, "rezein to do, 'organon an instrument, 'o`rgia secret rites, Zend verez, to work. √145. Cf. Bulwark Energy Erg Georgic Liturgy Metallurgy Organ Orgy Surgeon Wright
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
A.S. weorc; Ice. verk, Ger. werk; further conn. with Gr. ergon.

## Usage

### In literature:

The work is almost universally conducted by means of lectures, laboratory work, and recitations.
"College Teaching" by Paul Klapper
Work, work, work from morning to night, for next to nothing.
"Ireland as It Is" by Robert John Buckley (AKA R.J.B.)
Illustrations and Working Drawings of Work Benches.
"The Automobile Storage Battery" by O. A. Witte
Men of the so-called working classes vote against it because they fear to add to the power of the so-called aristocracy.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume IV" by Various
It made hard work easy and all work a joy.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume V"
No moral end has been answered, no permanent good effected, by any of their works.
"Modern Painters Volume I (of V)" by John Ruskin
You were not only earning big pay, you were doing fine work, work that was leading somewhere.
"The Harbor" by Ernest Poole
No one was inclined to work at all, let alone voluntarily work.
"The Law-Breakers" by Ridgwell Cullum
During 1917 suffrage work was displaced by war work, of which Kentucky suffragists did a large share.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume VI" by Various
In this way they were able to secure better wages, shorter hours of work, and safer mines in which to work.
"Modern Americans" by Chester Sanford
The work known as the Rescue Work of the Salvation Army is, to a certain extent, related to the Slum Work.
"The Social Work of the Salvation Army" by Edwin Gifford Lamb
It worked through him as a channel; and it worked through me.
"Carmen Ariza" by Charles Francis Stocking
It was well known that the only way to end the bad habit of work was to quit working.
"The Cup of Fury" by Rupert Hughes
Old MacBride wouldn't think the Company was prosperous if I wasn't working nights and Sundays.
"Calumet 'K'" by Samuel Merwin
When the crewel-work hangings ceased to be the fashion, home work took another direction.
"Needlework As Art" by Marian Alford
But she could not get him to work for a living.
"In the Heart of a Fool" by William Allen White
I wish they could do a good day's work; but, then, I don't pay them for a day's work, white man's reckoning.
"The Shadow" by Mary White Ovington
This topic may be arranged in two parts: the work done at home and the work sent out.
"The Complete Club Book for Women" by Caroline French Benton
Never since we last threw up works in front of the enemy, did the boys work with such a will.
"An Artilleryman's Diary" by Jenkin Lloyd Jones
Manning: Villages for Working Men and Working-Men's Homes.
"Woman's Club Work and Programs" by Caroline French Benton
***

### In poetry:

Yet once more, the busy day
With its work hath passed away,
Yet once more I seek my bed,
"An Evening Hymn" by Martin Farquhar Tupper
Along thy sprucest bookshelves shine
The works thou deemest most divine-
The "Art of Cookery,"and mine,
My Murray.
"Impromptus" by Lord George Gordon Byron
Her heart was in the graveyard
Where lay her children three,
Nor work nor prayer could save them,
Nor tears of agony.
"The Martyr" by Victor James Daley
A precious jewel in my breast,
And while I kept it I was glad
At work, at rest!
"The Letter L" by Jean Ingelow
I felt there was a God on high,
By whom all things were made;
I saw His wisdom and His power
In all his works displayed.
"In Memory Of A Happy Day In February" by Anne Bronte
I cannot choose but do."
Mother, if he that work forego,
Not long he cares for you.
"The Mother Mary" by George MacDonald

### In news:

Blackburn is proposing a four day work week wirh ten hour work days at City Hall, The Thomas Center and the City's H.R.
I never worked with Allison, and she never worked at the former Regent or current Townsquare Media stations, including WFGR.
But they (usually) work, and they work quickly.
You need to do a little work inside before cooking to make this work.
I'm always fascinated, Father Boyle, as much as I've read about your work, as many times as we've talked over the years, I'm always taken aback by how you got started in this line of work.
This is how comedians and entrepreneurs must work — by making countless small bets to discover what works.
I know the key works because when I use Microsoft Works, it functions correctly.
The opening work of the Smuin Ballet's triple bill at the Joyce Theater on Monday provides evidence of one of the most singular choreographic minds working in ballet today.
Mr Kipling 's last work is, to my mind, his best, and not easily comparable with the work of any other man.
Fewer people either working or looking for work, with the labor force participation rate hitting a 31-year low of 63.5 percent.
The one thing I enjoy most about my work is: working with caring people who have a passion for providing justice and healing for abused children.
Working for the Working-Class Vote.
It's hard to imagine there was once a time when Mila Kunis was considered just another player of FOX's 'That '70s Show,' consdering the filmic body of work (and her own body of work) we know her by these days.
In 1988, 80-year-old Margaret Mee, who painted many of the flora of the Amazon during more than 30 years of work, sat down with Robert MacNeil to discuss her experiences and work.
Randy Metcalf/The Explorer, While gaining a strong work ethic from his father and a willingness and dedication from his mother, Gary Panttila has been working hard both mentally and physically.
***

### In science:

Analytic work in this area is in its infancy; here we describe two examples of recent work on models that use ideas drawn from percolation theory.
Random graphs as models of networks
The method is considerably simpler than the approach followed in our earlier work, which was based on functional analytic arguments applied to variational representations and only worked in a very limited number of situations.
Weak-interaction limits for one-dimensional random polymers
If one wants to work with an explicit de Rham model of equivariant cohomology, one would like to avoid working with differential forms on the inﬁnite dimensional space EG.
Quantum Field Theory and Representation Theory: A Sketch
The work on “counts-in-cells” by Efstathiou et al. (1990) implicitly deals with the pro jected mass PDF in the linear regime, and the recent work of Dekel & Lahav (1999) studied this function in the context of “stochastic biasing”.
The Probability Distribution Function of Light in the Universe: Results from Hydrodynamic Simulations
The efforts to generalize these works to more general local toric surface geometries lead us to this work.
A Conjecture on Hodge Integrals
In addition to the work mentioned above, there are also many other works done on BLQH.
Mutual Composite Fermion and composite Boson approaches to balanced and imbalanced bilayer quantum Hall system: an electronic analogy of the Helium 4 system
However, further work is needed here to describe in physically interpretable terms, when the estimators work.
An invitation to quantum tomography (II)
The present paper extends this work to the quantum-mechanical context, solving some of the diﬃculties resulting from working with non-commuting operators.
Escort density operators and generalized quantum information measures
We shall work with X (µ) for µ := 1/16; this is not the optimal value of µ but is the cleanest to work with.
On random $\pm 1$ matrices: Singularity and Determinant
For d = 1 the above approach fails, because if α is small, then (30) will not work, if α is large, then we would have problems with (35), and it is not always possible to ﬁnd a value of α such that both inequalities would work.
On multidimensional branching random walks in random environment
In all of the present work a fundamental role has been played by the C ∗ -property of the norm and the conjugation relations. A bundle structure of the spaces of 2-arrows appears, whereas in preceding works it was (implicitly or explicitly) a starting hypothesis.
2-C*-categories with non-simple units
Though this fact is stated in the physicists works as for example , , it is never satisfactorily worked out.
Tensor Representations of the General Linear Supergroup
Let us mention the work of Talagrand who, using some of the tools developed by Guerra , proved the validity of the Parisi formula for the partition function of Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model (Parisi’s original work uses the replica method, but it can be reformulated in cavity terms ).
The number of matchings in random graphs
If (α, Z, F ) ∈ pζ+n , A ∈ F + , A ⊆ A∗ and A′ ⊆ A works for F and r, then also A′ works for F + A∗ and r.
Generating ultrafilters in a reasonable way
The main purpose of the present work is to suggest a general deﬁnition of unpro jection, and to show that it indeed generalizes previous work done in the topic.
Towards a general theory of unprojection
***