vulcanization

Definitions

  • VULCAN
    VULCAN
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n vulcanization process of treating rubber or rubberlike materials with sulphur at great heat to improve elasticity and strength or to harden them
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Additional illustrations & photos:

Vulcan instructs the Cyclopes in their new task Vulcan instructs the Cyclopes in their new task

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Astronomers once believed a planet named Vulcan existed between Mercury and the Sun
    • n Vulcanization The act or process of imparting to caoutchouc, gutta-percha, or the like, greater elasticity, durability, or hardness by heating with sulphur under pressure.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Heavyweight tire manufacturer Goodyear is in no way affiliated with Charles Goodyear, the inventor of vulcanized rubber. They merely admired his inventiveness and his process that was so easy to duplicate that competitors simply stole it.
    • n vulcanization A method of treating caoutchouc or india-rubber with some form of sulphur, to effect certain changes in its properties, and yield a soft (vulcanized india-rubber) or a hard (vulcauite) product. This was originally effected by dipping the rubber in melted sulphur and beating it to nearly: 300. Several other methods have been employed, probably the best of which for general purposes consists in mechanically mixing the rubber at a moderate heat with flowers of sulphur, and subsequently “curing” it in superheated steam at from 250 to 300 Fahr. The process was invented by Charles Goodyear, who obtained his first patent for it in 1844. Other ingredients, as litharge, white lead, zine-white, whiting, etc., are added to the sulphur to give color, softness, etc., to the rubber. The substance thus formed possesses the following properties: it remains elastic at all temperatures; it cannot be dissolved by the ordinary solvents, neither is it affected by heat within a considerable range of temperature; finally, it acquires extraordinary powers of resisting compression, with a great increase of strength and elasticity. Vulcanized india-rubber is employed with great success for very many useful purposes, as for waterproofing cloth, for boots, shoes, mats, toys, belting, buffers, wheel-tires, washers, valves, pipes, fire-hose, medical and surgical appliances, etc. Hard vulcanized rubber is known as ebonite or vulcanite. See vulcanite. Also spelled vulcanisation.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
See Vulcan

Usage

In literature:

She had been in Spain and excited admiration in Madrid by the excellence of her copy of "Vulcan," by Velasquez.
"Women in the fine arts, from the Seventh Century B.C. to the Twentieth Century A.D." by Clara Erskine Clement
Yet, when I saw it last, it was besmear'd As black as Vulcan, in the smoke of war.
"The Water-Witch or, The Skimmer of the Seas" by James Fenimore Cooper
Such, for example, is the vulcanized rubber of which waterproofs are made.
"Scientific American Supplement, No. 492, June 6, 1885" by Various
All the latter the general dedicated to Vulcan and burnt.
"History of Rome, Vol III" by Titus Livius
This day our Vulcan presented me with a good blade, forged on the Darling and tempered in its waters.
"Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia, Vol 1 (of 2)" by Thomas Mitchell
Associated Words: vulcanize, vulcanization.
"Putnam's Word Book" by Louis A. Flemming
Vulcan certainly has none ready made that will do, unless he sharpens the points of those which have already recoiled.
"Barford Abbey" by Susannah Minific Gunning
The nipple should be of black or pure rubber, and not of the white or vulcanized rubber; it should fit over the top of the bottle.
"Searchlights on Health" by B. G. Jefferis and J. L. Nichols
We no longer picture him as a sort of Vulcan hammering out the poetry of base love, raucous, powerful, mocking.
"The Art of Letters" by Robert Lynd
You lick them all hollow, great Vulcan-Apollo, Sole lord of our consciences, lives, arts, and armies!
"Punch, Or The London Charivari, Vol. 101, November 28, 1891" by Various
Vulcan defends Achilles, and sends fire against the river, which suffers in its water-body, till it is able to bear no more.
"Selections From the Works of John Ruskin" by John Ruskin
He is not a god of fire, like Vulcan, but the Fire itself regarded as divine.
"Hinduism and Buddhism, Vol I. (of 3)" by Charles Eliot
Vulcan was rousing himself again and beginning once more to blow his bellows.
"Blown to Bits" by Robert Michael Ballantyne
The discovery of the two satellites to Mars and of the planet Vulcan makes it all the worse for these facts.
"Recreations in Astronomy" by Henry Warren
This "Vulcan's Forge," which we see here, painted in Italy, is mythological only in the title.
"Spanish Highways and Byways" by Katharine Lee Bates
Goodyear was thus on the threshold of his great discovery of vulcanizing rubber.
"Inventors" by Philip Gengembre Hubert
Apuleius maintains, that if Venus were bald, though circled by the graces and the loves, she would not please even swarthy Vulcan.
"Curiosities of Medical Experience" by J. G. (John Gideon) Millingen
Lescarbault, a French physician, announced that he had actually seen such a planet, Vulcan it was called, passing over the sun in 1859.
"Astronomy" by David Todd
This treatment prevents the evaporation of the fluids which are fixed in the rubber in the process of vulcanization.
"Directions for Collecting and Preserving Insects" by C. V. Riley
These daughters of Vulcan were stripped to the waist.
"The Iron Ration" by George Abel Schreiner
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In poetry:

Shall the lame Vulcan
Shout as he swingeth
God-like his hammer,
And forge thee a fetter?
"March" by Isabella Valancy Crawford
"No," shouts the Titan,
The young lion-throated;
"Thor, Vulcan, nor Jove
Cannot shackle and bind me."
"March" by Isabella Valancy Crawford
Vulcan, contrive me such a cup
As Nestor used of old;
Show all thy skill to trim it up,
Damask it round with gold.
"Upon His Drinking a Bowl" by Lord John Wilmot
And if the honest truth were told,
Its heel confessed the need of darning;
"Gods!" low-bred Vulcan cried, "behold!
There! that's what comes of too much larning!"
"The First Fan" by Oliver Wendell Holmes
SUCH merit had the prince's folly got,
'In petto', Vulcan's brother was his lot;
The distance thence is little to the HAT:
The honour much the same of this or that.
"King Candaules And The Doctor Of Laws" by Jean de La Fontaine
Our Lady of Cythera now prepares to lead the dance,
While from above the kindly moon gives an approving glance;
The Nymphs and comely Graces join with Venus and the choir,
And Vulcan's glowing fancy lightly turns to thoughts of fire.
"In The Springtime" by Roswell Martin Field

In news:

Vulcans ready for Dennis Rose Intercollegiate .
Illinois Tool Works has expanded the cooking options available in its Vulcan line through the acquisition of certain assets from TEC.
With front Disc brakes that will securely stop this Vulcan 800 motorcycle on demand.
Michigan's Norway- Vulcan Area Schools contains 1 high school, and it received a gold, silver, or bronze medal.
Vulcan Utility Signs is a long time provider of quality utility signs and marking products for the water and sewer industry.
2011 Kawasaki Vulcan 1700 Vaquero Motorcycle Test.
Recent news and coverage of Vulcan Salute.
Visitors can experience the area from Vulcan 's view or tour Vulcan Center Museum to learn Birmingham's past, present and promise for the future.
Vulcan 's proposal to go to 240 feet (about 24 stories) in the lakefront area requires the developer to provide significant public benefit.
Is President Obama a Vulcan .
The name of the Vulcan man killed when a vehicle fell off a jack on Wednesday has been released.
A Vulcan , and a 'Star Trek' Actress.
Martin Marietta to Appeal Ruling Halting Vulcan Bid.
Vulcan Materials 3rd-Quarter Net Down 29.
The Vulcan 's reign ov.
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In science:

An extended version of the compressible hydro code VULCAN was employed.
Symmetry breaking and coarsening of clusters in a prototypical driven granular gas
Cavity method for randomly cross-linked macromolecules, especial ly in the vicinity of the random solidification transition—We begin by considering a system of vulcanized macromolecules, as depicted in Fig. 1a.
Cavity Approach to the Random Solid State
Thus, the RLPM can be regarded as a caricature of vulcanized rubber or as a model of chemical gels or other soft random solids.
Elastic heterogeneity of soft random solids
However, what if most of the time it does not? Recently, Burrows et al. (22; 23), using the code VULCAN/2D, have suggested an explosion driver that relies predominantly on acoustic power generated by vigorous core pulsations.
Multi-Dimensional Explorations in Supernova Theory
With VULCAN/2D, Burrows et al. (23) are able to ascertain the magnitude and sign of the impulse due to anisotropic neutrino emissions.
Multi-Dimensional Explorations in Supernova Theory
VULCAN/2D is still the only extant supernova code to perform 2D (not “ray-by-ray”) multi-group transport with general gravity all the way to the center.
Multi-Dimensional Explorations in Supernova Theory
Fig. 12.— Illustration of the VULCAN/2D unstructured grid in the central region where it transitions from spherical-polar (red) to Cartesian (black).
Multi-Dimensional Explorations in Supernova Theory
We now call such an addition which allowed renormalization the vulcanization 1 of the model.
Why Renormalizable NonCommutative Quantum Field Theories?
A remaining very important and difficult goal is to properly ”vulcanize” gauge theories such as Yang-Mills in four dimensional Moyal space or ChernSimons on the two dimensional Moyal plane plus one additional ordinary commutative time direction.
Why Renormalizable NonCommutative Quantum Field Theories?
The result exhibits both gauge symmetry and LS covariance, hence vulcanization, but the vacuum looked non trivial so that to check whether the associated perturbative expansion is really renormalizable seems difficult.
Why Renormalizable NonCommutative Quantum Field Theories?
They showed firstly that this vulcanized gauge action is the gauge part of a more general action including Higgs fields that can be deduced from the Connes-Lott spectral action, and secondly they found the equation obeyed by a radial non-trivial vacuum.
Why Renormalizable NonCommutative Quantum Field Theories?
They have non-logarithmic mass divergencies and definitely require “vulcanization” i.e. the Ω term. • self-dual models at Ω = 1 in which the propagator is LS invariant.
Why Renormalizable NonCommutative Quantum Field Theories?
Burrows for kindly allowing us to use simulation results obtained with VULCAN/2D in this work.
The Role of Collective Neutrino Flavor Oscillations in Core-Collapse Supernova Shock Revival
Both the chemical bonds defining the macromolecules and the bonds introduced by vulcanization will be regarded as permanent.
Random solids and random solidification: What can be learned by exploring systems obeying permanent random constraints?
This separation of timescales provides the window necessary for the applicability of equilibrium statistical mechanics to the unconstrained freedoms, sub ject to the vulcanization constraints which play the role of quenched random variables.
Random solids and random solidification: What can be learned by exploring systems obeying permanent random constraints?
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