virulency

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n virulency extreme hostility "the virulence of the malicious old man"
    • n virulency extreme harmfulness (as the capacity of a microorganism to cause disease) "the virulence of the plague"
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Virulency Extreme bitterness or malignity of disposition. "Refuted without satirical virulency .""The virulence of one declaimer, or the profundities and sublimities of the other."
    • Virulency The quality or state of being virulent or venomous; poisonousness; malignancy.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n virulency Same as virulence.
    • ***

Quotations

  • Gilbert Adair
    Gilbert Adair
    “We need cancer because, by the very fact of its insurability, it makes all other diseases, however virulent, not cancer.”
  • Simone Weil
    Simone%20Weil
    “The poison of skepticism becomes, like alcoholism, tuberculosis, and some other diseases, much more virulent in a hitherto virgin soil.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Cf. F. virulence, L. virulentia, an offensive odor, a stench

Usage

In literature:

Here only a few have died as yet, and Ali Effendi thinks the disease less virulent than in Lower Egypt.
"Letters from Egypt" by Lucie Duff Gordon
Further, the virulence of an organism is modified by the condition of the patient into whose tissues it is introduced.
"Manual of Surgery" by Alexis Thomson and Alexander Miles
I was one of the first stricken with a virulent type of typhoid fever which, in very many cases, had proved fatal.
"Medoline Selwyn's Work" by Mrs. J. J. Colter
It was cunningly to shew their virulence against his sacred Majesty King William, of ever glorious and immortal memory.
"The Prose Works of Jonathan Swift, D.D., Vol. VII" by Jonathan Swift
The buttons on our uniforms were tinged yellow and green from the gas, so virulent was the poison.
"S.O.S. Stand to!" by Reginald Grant
Yet dull as it was, hour by hour and day by idle day it grew more virulent.
"Never-Fail Blake" by Arthur Stringer
She accuses me with attacking popery "with virulence," of going out of my way to assault it "passionately.
"Charlotte Bronte and Her Circle" by Clement K. Shorter
But as it increased in violence and virulence she had more than once lost her temper.
"The Southerner" by Thomas Dixon
It becomes more virulent as it is successively transmitted from one victim to another.
"Kelly Miller's History of the World War for Human Rights" by Kelly Miller
Even in the house of commons, his person was treated with great disrespect in virulent insinuations.
"The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.II. From William and Mary to George II." by Tobias Smollett
The ultra-Republican press is becoming every day more virulent.
"Diary of the Besieged Resident in Paris" by Henry Labouchère
The droll hunchback's virulent dislike of mothers-in-law seems the nursed-up wrath of an unhappy personal experience.
"The Atlantic Monthly , Volume 2, No. 14, December 1858" by Various
On the contrary, they redoubled in virulence.
"The Magnificent Montez" by Horace Wyndham
Besides, the opposition of the Jews rose here to unusual virulence.
"The Life of St. Paul" by James Stalker
Your friends are as firm and unwavering as your enemies are virulent and dangerous.
"Frank Merriwell's Races" by Burt L. Standish
The very process of reform, however necessary and inevitable, lends fresh virulence to old ills and imports new evils previously unknown.
"The New World of Islam" by Lothrop Stoddard
Montagu assailed him with a virulence scarcely tolerated even at the bar.
"The History of Tasmania, Volume I (of 2)" by John West
Political strifes occur, but are rarely virulent.
"The Continental Monthly, Vol. 6, No. 6, December 1864" by Various
Gourlay was arrested and carried before the most virulent of his political enemies.
"The Rise of Canada, from Barbarism to Wealth and Civilisation" by Charles Roger
Other accusations, not less serious, or less virulent, were addressed to him by M. Carnot, and by General Grenier.
"Memoirs of the Private Life, Return, and Reign of Napoleon in 1815, Vol. II" by Pierre Antoine Edouard Fleury de Chaboulon
***

In poetry:

There was a Young Lady of Hull,
Who was chased by a virulent bull;
But she seized on a spade,
And called out, 'Who's afraid?'
Which distracted that virulent bull.
"Limerick: There was a Young Lady of Hull" by Edward Lear
Yes, season’d with your own remarks between,
Inflamed with so much virulence of spleen
That the mild town (to give the devil his due)
Ascribed the whole performance to a Jew.
"Reproof: A Satire." by Tobias Smollett

In news:

The members of this clone have virulence profiles that combine those of two different enterovirulent E coli —enterohaemorrhagic E coli and enteroaggregative E coli .
That mortality rate suggests the virus is of mild to moderate virulence .
Siegel said 0.2% of swine flu cases are resulting in death, a mortality rate that suggests the virus is of mild to moderate virulence .
Scientists studying the virus in animals are likely to continue searching for specific markers of virulence .
Gay community an epicenter for new strain of virulent staph.
Virulent New Strain of TB Raising Fears of Pandemic.
Are viruses more virulent in cold weather.
American reporters who are posted in the Mideast say that after covering the most virulent anti-U.
The team also exposed caterpillars to the bacteria in the lab, observed the infections, and found that with lower proportions of virulent bacteria , fewer caterpillars died.
Field studies reveal non-virulent bacteria take advantage of their virulent counterparts to get a free pass into their host.
Vietnam has contained the fatal bird flu cases that raged in the late 2000s, but it is still struggling with new cases of the virulent disease.
Coleman and Valene are brothers and roommates, but they are also virulent enemies.
And it's one of the most virulently anti-union employers.
On Fareed Zakaria's show on CNN this morning Elliott Abrams faced off Peter Beinart and Zakaria (who, frankly, was the more virulent of the two Israel-bashers).
A man flew back and forth on commercial flights across the Atlantic before landing in an isolation ward, diagnosed with a particularly virulent and drug-resistant strain of tuberculosis .
***

In science:

However, the mutation of other viruses into the virulent strain could appear in isolated areas where they are not introduced through direct contact.
Large Deviations for Processes in Random Environments with Jumps
More specifically, for general networks with bounded external virulence (e.g., a single or finite number of random mobile agents), we derive upperbounds on the order of the infection time as a function of network size.
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
The bounds are based on the graph topology (in particular, diameter/conductance of appropriate subgraphs) and a lower bound Lmin (n) on the virulence (which can scale with the network size).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Now, to complete our system description, we term the quantity || ¯L(t)||1 as the long-range virulence at time t, i.e., the power of the infection to spread through long-range contact.
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Upper Bounds for Specific Policies Our first main result is an upper-bound on the finish time (both in expectation and with high probability) of the homogeneous external virulence policy, or as we refer to it hereafter, the random spread policy, for a general graph G.
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Theorem 1 (Upper bound for Homogeneous External Virulence: Diameter version).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Theorem 5 (Lower bound: d-dimensional grids, bounded long-range virulence).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Theorem (Theorem 1: Upper bound for Homogeneous External Virulence: Diameter version).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Lmin (n) , d(n) We conclude this section with the conductance-based upper bound on the finish time with random external-agents. n, the graph Gn admits a partition Gn = (cid:83)g(n) Theorem (Theorem 3: Upper Bound for Homogeneous External Virulence: Conductance version).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Theorem (Theorem 5: Lower bound: d-dimensional grids, bounded long-range virulence).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
For general graphs, we have provided upper bounds on the spreading time due to external-infection with bounded virulence for random and greedy infection policies; these bounds are in terms of the diameter and the conductance of the graph.
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Both expressions lead to an optimum of R0 at some intermediate level of virulence, where transmission rates are high and host lifetimes long.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
Numerical simulation and analytical solution of special cases show that for s > 0 several strains can coexist in the population, and that all of them have a virulence larger than the ESS value found above for the case of single infection.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
The same authors also studied a different model [173], where the more virulent strains do coexist with the less virulent strains within the same host without replacing them, but where the virulence perceived by the host is its most virulent parasite.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
In this case, the long-term winners are those parasite strains that have a virulence close to the maximum possible value for which R0 is still larger than 1. A different formal approach which combines within-host and between-host selection was taken by Frank [174].
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
***