virulence

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n virulence extreme hostility "the virulence of the malicious old man"
    • n virulence extreme harmfulness (as the capacity of a microorganism to cause disease) "the virulence of the plague"
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Virulence Extreme bitterness or malignity of disposition. "Refuted without satirical virulency .""The virulence of one declaimer, or the profundities and sublimities of the other."
    • Virulence The quality or state of being virulent or venomous; poisonousness; malignancy.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n virulence The quality of being virulent, or charged with virus. (adjective) The quality or property of being extremely acrimonious or poisonous: as, the virulence of the cobra's venom, Acrimony of temper; extreme bitterness or malignity; rancor.
    • n virulence Synonyms Poisonousness, venom, deadliness.
    • n virulence Asperity, Harshness. See acrimony.
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Quotations

  • Gilbert Adair
    Gilbert Adair
    “We need cancer because, by the very fact of its insurability, it makes all other diseases, however virulent, not cancer.”
  • Simone Weil
    Simone%20Weil
    “The poison of skepticism becomes, like alcoholism, tuberculosis, and some other diseases, much more virulent in a hitherto virgin soil.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Cf. F. virulence, L. virulentia, an offensive odor, a stench

Usage

In literature:

That year 1822 was a year of much sorrow; the cholera, said to have first appeared in 1817, became very virulent.
"Pioneers and Founders or, Recent Workers in the Mission field" by Charlotte Mary Yonge
This swamp is famous throughout the valley for the immense size and virulence of the mosquitoes which breed in it.
"Jack Haydon's Quest" by John Finnemore
The disease, we are told, becomes less virulent as the plant grows.
"The Mysteries of All Nations" by James Grant
That the satire of "The New System" struck home is obvious from the fierceness and virulence of the criticism with which it was hailed.
"Essays on Scandinavian Literature" by Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen
No drug, no chemical, can antidote its virulent poison or drive it from the system.
"Plain Facts for Old and Young" by John Harvey Kellogg
And these mosquitoes from the lagoon were of surpassing virulence.
"With Our Army in Palestine" by Antony Bluett
It has temporarily suffered from cruel defection within, and the most virulent persecution without the camp.
"Autographs for Freedom, Volume 2 (of 2) (1854)" by Various
And, while the war fever had not seemed to be in evidence in the afternoon, he knew that it might have broken out virulently in the interval.
"Facing the German Foe" by Colonel James Fiske
I once asked an Englishman why the English press was so virulently hostile to one of the most brilliant of her rising men.
"Canada: the Empire of the North" by Agnes C. Laut
But most of them were afflicted, for it was exceedingly virulent, and the normal serums were helpless.
"Invaders from the Infinite" by John Wood Campbell
Wit without virulence, wine without excess, and wisdom without affectation.
"The Handy Cyclopedia of Things Worth Knowing" by Joseph Triemens
Its effect is virulent when it enters the blood.
"From Pole to Pole" by Sven Anders Hedin
In Kief, the disease had taken a particularly virulent form.
"Rabbi and Priest" by Milton Goldsmith
For never was faction more virulent than in the Court of the exiled Monarch, and during the minority of his son.
"Memoirs of the Jacobites of 1715 and 1745" by Mrs. Thomson
The scientists of Sator knew that the virus was virulent; in fact, too virulent for its own good.
"Islands of Space" by John W Campbell
A certain set of individuals calling themselves critics have attacked Lavengro with much virulence and malice.
"The Romany Rye a sequel to "Lavengro"" by George Borrow
Not that there is any particular virulence in this superstition, but that all superstitions are awkward things to deal with.
"Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Volume 61, No. 378, April, 1847" by Various
As the days wore on, Captain Tolliver's dementia spread and raged virulently.
"Aladdin & Co." by Herbert Quick
Lalage had always displayed a special virulence in dealing with Vittie's public utterances.
"Lalage's Lovers" by George A. Birmingham
She, with much energy and, I may almost say, with virulence, declared that the horrid paper had been sent to her.
"Miss Mackenzie" by Anthony Trollope
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In poetry:

There was a Young Lady of Hull,
Who was chased by a virulent bull;
But she seized on a spade,
And called out, 'Who's afraid?'
Which distracted that virulent bull.
"Limerick: There was a Young Lady of Hull" by Edward Lear
Yes, season’d with your own remarks between,
Inflamed with so much virulence of spleen
That the mild town (to give the devil his due)
Ascribed the whole performance to a Jew.
"Reproof: A Satire." by Tobias Smollett

In news:

Street bears surname of virulent anti-Semite .
But Alfred Kazin's article on Pound ( NYR, March 13) reaches, in its low moments, some heights of virulence.
Street bears surname of virulent anti- Semite .
It took researchers using the machine in China and Germany only three hours to produce a preliminary genetic sequence identifying a particularly virulent E. A human sequence contains about 3 billion pairs.
Street bears surname of virulent anti-Semite.
The virulence of the viral video.
Virulence of Swine Flu Is Not Yet Known.
Nile virus emerges more virulent .
Hints of a more virulent , mutating West Nile virus emerge.
or of any possible association of new genetic variants with increased virulence .
HIV Appears Responsible for New Virulent Strains of Salmonella.
A nurse in Hamburg, Germany, on Wednesday tended a patient infected with a virulent strain of E.
Gay community an epicenter for new strain of virulent staph.
Virulent New Strain of TB Raising Fears of Pandemic.
Are viruses more virulent in cold weather.
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In science:

However, the mutation of other viruses into the virulent strain could appear in isolated areas where they are not introduced through direct contact.
Large Deviations for Processes in Random Environments with Jumps
More specifically, for general networks with bounded external virulence (e.g., a single or finite number of random mobile agents), we derive upperbounds on the order of the infection time as a function of network size.
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
The bounds are based on the graph topology (in particular, diameter/conductance of appropriate subgraphs) and a lower bound Lmin (n) on the virulence (which can scale with the network size).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Now, to complete our system description, we term the quantity || ¯L(t)||1 as the long-range virulence at time t, i.e., the power of the infection to spread through long-range contact.
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Theorem 1 (Upper bound for Homogeneous External Virulence: Diameter version).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Theorem 5 (Lower bound: d-dimensional grids, bounded long-range virulence).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Theorem (Theorem 1: Upper bound for Homogeneous External Virulence: Diameter version).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Theorem (Theorem 5: Lower bound: d-dimensional grids, bounded long-range virulence).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
This argument has lead to the expectation that parasites should evolve to a moderate level of virulence.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
One can expect that there is a relation between virulence and transmission: For very small virulence, the parasite density in the host is low, and so is the transmission rate.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
With increasing virulence, the transmission rate increases and can be expected to increase only slowly or to saturate when virulence becomes high.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
Both expressions lead to an optimum of R0 at some intermediate level of virulence, where transmission rates are high and host lifetimes long.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
Numerical simulation and analytical solution of special cases show that for s > 0 several strains can coexist in the population, and that all of them have a virulence larger than the ESS value found above for the case of single infection.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
The same authors also studied a different model [173], where the more virulent strains do coexist with the less virulent strains within the same host without replacing them, but where the virulence perceived by the host is its most virulent parasite.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
In this case, the long-term winners are those parasite strains that have a virulence close to the maximum possible value for which R0 is still larger than 1. A different formal approach which combines within-host and between-host selection was taken by Frank [174].
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
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