vanadium

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n vanadium a soft silvery white toxic metallic element used in steel alloys; it occurs in several complex minerals including carnotite and vanadinite
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Vanadium (Chem) A rare element of the nitrogen-phosphorus group, found combined, in vanadates, in certain minerals, and reduced as an infusible, grayish-white metallic powder. It is intermediate between the metals and the non-metals, having both basic and acid properties. Symbol V (or Vd, rarely). Atomic weight 50.94 (C12=12.000).
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n vanadium Metallic vanadium in a compact state has been obtained by fusion in an electric furnace. It has a gray color, is lustrous, and, as thus far observed, brittle, though perhaps this may be due to impurity of the metal; it is with difficulty freed from oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen.
    • n vanadium Chemical symbol, V; atomic weight, 51.2. A metal first discovered by Del Rio, in 1801, in a lead ore from Mexico, and called by him erythronium, because its salts became red when heated with acids. This supposed new metal was not accepted by chemists, and Del Rio's name was dropped. Later, in 1830, Sefström described a new metal from Taberg, in Sweden, for which he proposed the name of vanadium, (from Vanadis, one of the goddesses of the Scandinavian mythology); and immediately after it was shown by Wöhler that Del Rio's ore was, in fact, a vanadate of lead. But the name vanadium has been maintained, and that of erythronium has never been received. Metallic vanadium, as prepared by reducing the chlorid in hydrogen gas, is a light-gray powder, which under the microscope has a brilliant silvery luster: it has a specific gravity of 5.5; it is very little acted on by air or moisture at the ordinary temperature; it is easily dissolved in nitric acid, but is not at all acted on by hydrochloric acid, and is affected by strong sulphuric acid only when heated. Vanadium belongs to the antimony group, and, like the other members of this group, is in its chemical relations closely connected with the elements of the nitrogen group. Vanadium is an element whose combinations seem to be quite widely distributed, although occurring only in small quantity. The most abundant vanadium mineral is vanadinite, which is a vanadate of lead with chlorid of lead, and has been found in numerous widely separated localities. Vanadium resembles titanium in that it has been detected in various clays and igneous rocks. It is obtained in some quantity from the cupriferous Triassic beds of the vicinity of Mottram, Cheshire, England, in the form of the so-called mottramite, a hydrous vanadate of copper and lead.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Vanadium van-ā′di-um a rare metal somewhat resembling silver in appearance, very brittle and infusible, and unoxidisible either by air or water
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
NL., fr. Icel. Vanadīs, a surname of the Scandinavian goddess Freya
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Named from Vanadis, a Scandinavian goddess.

Usage

In literature:

It's a peculiar mixture of aluminum and vanadium steel.
"Tom Swift and his Air Scout" by Victor Appleton
CERIUM, LANTHANIUM, DIDYMIUM, COLUMBIUM, NIOBIUM, PELOPIUM, TITANIUM, URANIUM, VANADIUM, CHROMIUM, MANGANESE.
"A System of Instruction in the Practical Use of the Blowpipe" by Anonymous
The corresponding group consists of nitrogen, vanadium and niobium; they are triatomic, paramagnetic, and negative.
"Occult Chemistry" by Annie Besant and Charles W. Leadbeater
Yet if it had not been for vanadium steel we should have no Ford cars.
"Creative Chemistry" by Edwin E. Slosson
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium, carbon, or manganese.
"The Working of Steel" by Fred H. Colvin
A good deal of Vanadium alloy is used, and this is made in America.
"A Journey Through France in War Time" by Joseph G. Butler, Jr.
The catalyzers most used are platinum powder, vanadium oxide, and iron oxide.
"An Elementary Study of Chemistry" by William McPherson
Another use of vanadium is in chrome-vanadium steels for armor-plate and automobiles.
"The Economic Aspect of Geology" by C. K. Leith
The rare metal vanadium is worth 13,000 francs ($2,600) per pound; about eight times as much as gold.
"The Galaxy" by Various
Ever find any vanadium or manganese around here?
"Shadow Mountain" by Dane Coolidge
Chemically related to vanadium are the two elements tantalum and columbium or niobium.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 1" by Various
Chromium and vanadium have a 'stabilizing' effect, i.e.
"The New Gresham Encyclopedia. Vol. 1 Part 1" by Various
Roscoelite is a vanadium mica from a gold mine at Granite creek, California.
"The Galaxy" by Various
But the improvement may be due wholly to the considerable chromium content of these so-called vanadium steels.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 14, Slice 7" by Various
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In news:

Revision of D5708 - 11 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Nickel, Vanadium, and Iron in Crude Oils and Residual Fuels by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Atomic Emission Spectrometry.
Metallurg Vanadium reaches early labor contract settlement.
Metallurg Vanadium Corporation has announced an early labor contract settlement between the company and USW Local 4836-02.
AMG Vanadium donates to food banks.
Revision of F2924 - 12 Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing Titanium-6 Aluminum-4 Vanadium with Powder Bed Fusion.
Revision of D5708 - 11 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Nickel, Vanadium , and Iron in Crude Oils and Residual Fuels by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Atomic Emission Spectrometry.
What are the values and viscosities of vanadium , sodium and aluminum.
5 fuel oil, what are the values and viscosities of vanadium , sodium and aluminum.
AMG Vanadium announces two promotions here.
AMG Vanadium provides financial support to area schools.
Vanadium -Carbide Tool Coatings.
TD Center, Columbus, IN, presents thermally diffused (TD) coatings composed of super-pure, ultra-dense vanadium carbide.
Plasma vanadium concentration in manic-depressive illness.
New to Mayhew's Cats Paw line is a 48-piece bit driver set containing 33 Slotted, Phillips, Pozi, Star and Hex bits made of S-2 steel, along with 14 Chrome Vanadium power nut setters.
E-Z Red's Hook and Pick Sets feature tools with ergonomic, chemical-resistant handles with quick-disconnect and chrome-vanadium construction.
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In science:

Vanadium isotopes as a function of time when they were discovered.
Discovery of the Vanadium Isotopes
Figure A summarizes the year of first discovery for all vanadium isotopes identified by the method of discovery.
Discovery of the Vanadium Isotopes
In the following paragraphs, the discovery of each vanadium isotope is discussed in detail.
Discovery of the Vanadium Isotopes
V was correctly identified for the first time in 1940 by Turner from Princeton University as reported in Radioactive Isotopes of Vanadium .
Discovery of the Vanadium Isotopes
In each of the experiments single and doubly charged vanadium ions were analyzed in a mass spectrometer.
Discovery of the Vanadium Isotopes
The discovery of the isotopes of vanadium has been cataloged and the methods of their discovery discussed.
Discovery of the Vanadium Isotopes
LDA calculations revealed much different and more complex structures due to the hybridization of the 3d orbitals of vanadium.
Magnetic Ordering in Blocking Layer and Highly Anisotropic Electronic Structure of High-Tc Iron-based Superconductor Sr2VFeAsO3: LDA+U Studies
Vanadium oxide is well known to be a strongly correlated system.
Magnetic Ordering in Blocking Layer and Highly Anisotropic Electronic Structure of High-Tc Iron-based Superconductor Sr2VFeAsO3: LDA+U Studies
This implies that the perovskite-layer including vanadium oxide becomes insulating and then the Fermi surfaces are not influenced by vanadium electrons.
Magnetic Ordering in Blocking Layer and Highly Anisotropic Electronic Structure of High-Tc Iron-based Superconductor Sr2VFeAsO3: LDA+U Studies
For this purpose, we use LDA+U method for d-electrons of vanadium.
Magnetic Ordering in Blocking Layer and Highly Anisotropic Electronic Structure of High-Tc Iron-based Superconductor Sr2VFeAsO3: LDA+U Studies
We consider strong correlation on vanadium d-orbital electrons.
Magnetic Ordering in Blocking Layer and Highly Anisotropic Electronic Structure of High-Tc Iron-based Superconductor Sr2VFeAsO3: LDA+U Studies
In order to include the strong correlation effect, we use LDA + U method, in which the Hubbard U is applied only on the vanadium d-electrons.
Magnetic Ordering in Blocking Layer and Highly Anisotropic Electronic Structure of High-Tc Iron-based Superconductor Sr2VFeAsO3: LDA+U Studies
The set is close to those employed in successful calculations on vanadium oxides using LDA + U and LDA+DMFT [13, 19].
Magnetic Ordering in Blocking Layer and Highly Anisotropic Electronic Structure of High-Tc Iron-based Superconductor Sr2VFeAsO3: LDA+U Studies
In U = 0, that is, a standard LDA calculation, the bands of spin-down (ma jority-spin) d-electron of vanadium cross the Fermi level as shown in Fig. 2(a), though spin-up bands are away from the Fermi level.
Magnetic Ordering in Blocking Layer and Highly Anisotropic Electronic Structure of High-Tc Iron-based Superconductor Sr2VFeAsO3: LDA+U Studies
This is strong evidence that vanadium 3d electrons do not contribute to band structure around the Fermi level, i.e., the vanadium layer is insulating.
Magnetic Ordering in Blocking Layer and Highly Anisotropic Electronic Structure of High-Tc Iron-based Superconductor Sr2VFeAsO3: LDA+U Studies
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