valence

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n valence (chemistry) a property of atoms or radicals; their combining power given in terms of the number of hydrogen atoms (or the equivalent)
    • n valence (biology) a relative capacity to unite or react or interact as with antigens or a biological substrate
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Valence (Chem) The degree of combining power of an atom (or radical) as shown by the number of atoms of hydrogen (or of other monads, as chlorine, sodium, etc.) with which it will combine, or for which it can be substituted, or with which it can be compared; thus, an atom of hydrogen is a monad, and has a valence of one; the atoms of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon are respectively dyads, triads, and tetrads, and have a valence respectively of two, three, and four.☞ The valence of certain elements varies in different compounds. Valence in degree may extend as high as seven or eight, as in the cases of iodine and osmium respectively. The doctrine of valence has been of fundamental importance in distinguishing the equivalence from the atomic weight, and is an essential factor in explaining the chemical structures of compounds.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • valence See valance.
    • n valence In chem., the relative saturating or combining capacity of an atom compared with the standard hydrogen atom; the quality or force which determines the number of atoms with which any single atom will chemically unite. The original statement of the law of valence was that each atom could combine with a certain definite number of hydrogen atoms, or with an equivalent number of atoms of any other element, and that this number was fixed and unalterable. This number expressed the valence, which was a constant, an invariable property of the element. For example, one atom of phosphorus combines with three atoms of chlorin, forming phosphorus trichlorid. As the chlorin atom is univalent, phosphorus appears to be trivalent. But in phosphorus pentachlorid one atom of phosphorus combines with five of chlorin, and therefore phosphorus in this case appears quinquivalent. In view of facts like these it is held by some authorities that the valence of an element is a varying quality depending on the nature of the other combining atoms, temperature, etc. By others valence is assumed to be invariable, but the total valence is not always exhibited or in force. Also called valency, equivalence, and, less properly, atomicity.
    • n valence In biology: Form value; morphological value or equivalency. See morphic.
    • n valence In zoology, taxonomic value or equivalency; classificatory grade or rank of a zoölogical group.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Valence vā′lens (chem.) the combining power of an element, or the proportion in which it forms a combination with another
    • Valence Also Vā′lency
    • ***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
From L. valens, -entis, p. pr. of valere, to have power, to be strong. See Valiant

Usage

In literature:

He settled down into the crying chair at last, and I could see his valence shifting from outraged anger to a vast and noble forgiveness.
"Sense from Thought Divide" by Mark Irvin Clifton
Neither was Montluc of Valence a clergyman.
"The Rise of the Hugenots, Vol. 1 (of 2)" by Henry Martyn Baird
Bulgarius, Count of Valence, heard say that they were about to hang Aucassin his enemy, and came that way.
"Aucassin and Nicolette translated from the Old French" by Anonymous
Amongst these uncles William, Bishop-elect of Valence, took the lead.
"A Student's History of England, v. 1 (of 3)" by Samuel Rawson Gardiner
He was attended, also, by Generals Valence and Chartres.
"Louis Philippe" by John S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) Abbott
Apparently any group of ideas with an emotional valence may become the basis for propaganda.
"Introduction to the Science of Sociology" by Robert E. Park
To steal a phrase from chemistry, their "valency" alters.
"An Ocean Tramp" by William McFee
Go down to Valence and across to Die.
"The Count's Chauffeur" by William Le Queux
MONTLUC, Bishop of Valence, his negotiations for the election of the Duke of Anjou as King of Poland, iii.
"Curiosities of Literature, Vol. 3 (of 3)" by Isaac Disraeli
Another consequence of the doctrine of valency was that it permitted the graphic representation of the molecule.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 1" by Various
The changes in valence should become intelligible and valence itself should be explained.
"A Brief Account of Radio-activity" by Francis Preston Venable
It was formerly the seat of a bishopric, united to that of Valence from 1276 to 1687 and suppressed in 1790.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 4" by Various
In 1848 a statue was erected in his honour at Valence.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 7" by Various
It is equal to the molecular weight of the ion, divided by 96.537 times its valency.
"The Mechanism of Life" by Stéphane Leduc
Near Valence, on April twenty-fourth, the imperial procession met Augereau's carriage.
"The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte" by William Milligan Sloane
At Valence, however, romance hesitates on the outskirts.
"The Car That Went Abroad" by Albert Bigelow Paine
St. Apollinaire de Valence, 190-194, 543.
"The Cathedrals of Southern France" by Francis Miltoun
He intended to follow de Valence to Scotland, and to complete the suppression of the rising in person.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 9, Slice 5" by Various
After some months Napoleon left home again, to rejoin his regiment at Valence.
"Joseph Bonaparte" by John S. C. Abbott
In 1585, caterpillars suffered excommunication in Valence.
"Curiosities of Olden Times" by S. Baring-Gould
***

In poetry:

As RAYMOND rose from his unrest
He knew DE VALENCE'S falcon crest;
And the red cross that shone like a glory afar,
Told the warrior was vow'd to the holy war.
"The Troubadour. Canto 2" by Letitia Elizabeth Landon
But sadness moved him when he gave
DE VALENCE to his lowly grave,--
The grave where the wild flowers were sleeping,
And one pale olive-tree was weeping,--
And placed the rude stone cross to show
A Christian hero lay below.
"The Troubadour. Canto 3" by Letitia Elizabeth Landon

In news:

A traffic jam on the A7 highway between Vienne and Valence, eastern France, during holiday departures on August 4, 2012.
When treating a person with a heavy metal burden, use a mineral that has the same valence as the toxic metal: for instance, mercury has a +2 charge.
Valence Technology this morning announced that it has filed Chapter 11 in the US Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Texas.
Valence Technology Files For Bankruptcy Protection.
Introducing WWE NXT's Ashley Valence .
Immediately remove the recalled product from cribs , window valence or curtain rods and contact Babylicious to receive a refund.
500 Valence St New Orleans, LA Citywide 896-7679.
Samuel J Green Charter School, 2319 Valence St New Orleans, LA Uptown 267-9053 www.esynola.org.
***

In science:

In the QE charm production a valence d-quark is transformed, through weak interaction, into a c-quark.
MC generators in CHORUS
The VBS ansatz for the ground-state assumes that the valence bonds are all between nearest neighbors, which is not precisely correct even at R = 0.
Permutation-Symmetric Multicritical Points in Random Antiferromagnetic Spin Chains
Non-singlet (or valence) distribution functions are easily evolved in terms of their Mellin moments.
Pion Structure at High and Low Energies in Chiral Quark Models
If E has a vertex v of infinite valency and a vertex w which does not connect to v , then v 6∈ L{w} ; moreover v 6∈ Σ(L{w} ), since v has infinite valency.
Some intrinsic properties of simple graph $C^*$-algebras
The case when there is a vertex of infinite valency is quite similar.
Some intrinsic properties of simple graph $C^*$-algebras
Let E be a directed graph with at least one vertex of infinite valency, then C ∗(E )γ is not simple.
Some intrinsic properties of simple graph $C^*$-algebras
If E has a vertex infinite valency then C ∗(E )γ is not simple by Proposition 6.6.
Some intrinsic properties of simple graph $C^*$-algebras
The valency of these vertices increases to ˜vi = vi + 1.
Statistical properties of resonance widths for open Quantum Graphs
In fact, according to our calculation, there are no free holes in the GaN valence band.
Self-interaction effects in (Ga,Mn)As and (Ga,Mn)N
This tight-binding analysis of the valence bands confirms our results.
Symmetry Analysis of the Kohn-Sham Band Structure of Bulk Lithium Fluoride
In the Ising limit, the supersolid is a CDW supersolid; whereas in the easy-plane limit, it is a valence bond supersolid.
Mutual Composite Fermion and composite Boson approaches to balanced and imbalanced bilayer quantum Hall system: an electronic analogy of the Helium 4 system
The Fermi level is close to the top of the valence band and it is crossed by several bands.
Superconductivity from doping boron icosahedra
Np and Nn refer to the number of valence protons and neutrons, respectively.
Patterns of the ground states in the presence of random interactions: nucleon systems
It was found that positive parity is dominant for the g.s. of systems with even numbers of valence protons and neutrons.
Patterns of the ground states in the presence of random interactions: nucleon systems
Let Kp (M ) denote the vector space of Killing tensors of valence p ≥ 1 defined in (M , g).
Covariants,joint invariants and the problem of equivalence in the invariant theory of Killing tensors defined in pseudo-Riemannian spaces of constant curvature
***