vacuole

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n vacuole a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Vacuole (Biol) A small air cell, or globular space, in the interior of organic cells, either containing air, or a pellucid watery liquid, or some special chemical secretions of the cell protoplasm.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n vacuole A minute cell or cavity in the tissue of organisms.
    • n vacuole In anatomy, a minute space, vacuity, or interstice of tissue in which lymphatic vessels are supposed to originate.
    • n vacuole In zoology, any minute vesicle or vacuity in the tissue of a protozoan, as an amœba. Vacuoles are sometimes divided into permanent, contractile or pulsating, and gastric. The first are sometimes so numerous as to give the organism a vesicular or bubblelike appearance. The second kind exhibit regular contraction and dilatation, or pulsate. Gastric vacuoles, or food-vacuoles, occur in connection with the ingestion and digestion of food; these are formed by a globule of water which has been taken in with a particle of food, and are not permanent. See cuts under Actinosphærium, Noctiluca, Paramecium, sun-animalcule, and Cestoidea.
    • n vacuole In botany, a cavity of greater or less size within the protoplasmic mass of active vegetable cells, which is filled with water, or cell-sap as it is called. Active protoplasm possesses the power of imbibing water into its substance and, as a consequence, of increasing in size. When the amount of water is so great that the protoplasm may be said to be more than saturated with it, the excess is separated within the protoplasmic mass in the form of rounded drops called vacuoles. In closed cells these may become so large and abundant as to be separated only by thin plates of protoplasm. As such vacuoles become larger the plates are broken through, and eventually there may be but one large vacuole surrounded by a thin layer of protoplasm, which lines the interior of the cell-wall. Bessey.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • Vacuole a very small cavity in the tissue of organisms
    • ***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. vacuus, empty: cf. F. vacuole,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. vacuus, empty.

Usage

In literature:

The body is spherical and differentiated into granular endoplasm and vacuolated ectoplasm, but the zones are not definitely separated.
"Marine Protozoa from Woods Hole" by Gary N. Calkins
At each end of the cell is a vacuole containing small granules that show an active dancing movement.
"Elements of Structural and Systematic Botany" by Douglas Houghton Campbell
The food vacuole (FV) contains ingested food.
"The Outline of Science, Vol. 1 (of 4)" by J. Arthur Thomson
Vacuolate: with vacuoles or small cavities, empty or filled with a watery fluid.
"Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology" by John. B. Smith
Sap vacuoles must be distinguished from spores, on the one hand, and the vacuolated appearance due to plasmolysis, on the other.
"The Elements of Bacteriological Technique" by John William Henry Eyre
This is filled with a granular protoplasm, in which vacuoles are formed.
"Fungi: Their Nature and Uses" by Mordecai Cubitt Cooke
All strains show involution form, exhibiting vacuoles, and often show empty cell membranes.
"The Bacillus of Long Life" by Loudon Douglas
The greater part of the cavity of the cell is occupied by one or several fluid vacuoles.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 4" by Various
The solvent is imprisoned in the vacuoles of the clot, and is expelled little by little by its retraction.
"The Mechanism of Life" by Stéphane Leduc
You may also be able to see vacuoles, looking like holes in the stained protoplasm.
"A Guide for the Study of Animals" by Worrallo Whitney
Spores with two polar-capsules, and without an iodinophilous vacuole in the sporoplasm.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 9, Slice 3" by Various
The food-particle d has now been ingested by the vacuole.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 10, Slice 4" by Various
Later on this vacuole disappears, and the grains of pigment make their appearance.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 12, Slice 7" by Various
Within its bioplasm a clear space or vacuole may often be distinguished.
"The Contemporary Review, Volume 36, October 1879" by Various
There is often a distinction, clear, but never sharp, between the richly vacuolate, almost frothy ectoplasm and the denser endoplasm.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 13, Slice 2" by Various
Look for tiny clear areas in the cells; these are vacuoles, or spaces filled with fluid.
"A Civic Biology" by George William Hunter
The pore of the contractile vacuole might be described in the same terms.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 14, Slice 5" by Various
The latter are vacuolated, and contain each a nucleus and several dark granules.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 14, Slice 2" by Various
The protoplasm appears slightly granular and generally contains one or two small vacuoles.
"The Works of Francis Maitland Balfour, Volume 1" by Francis Maitland Balfour
Some of these cells are unusually large, and each contains one or more contractile vacuoles.
"Elementary Zoology, Second Edition" by Vernon L. Kellogg
***

In news:

"This is the cell membrane, this is the cytoplasm, this is the nucleus, this is a food vacuole where food is digested, this is a waste product vacuole, these are pseudopods that move around and trap food".
PolyMedix's defensin-mimetics target the digestive vacuole of the parasite that causes malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, via a mechanism distinct from other anti-malarial agents, essentially starving the parasite of food.
***

In science:

Approaches adopting the Einstein-Strauss method with positive Λ, where the matter in a spherical region collapses to form the lens and the resulting SdS vacuole is matched into a FRW background, were also followed.
The role of Lambda in the cosmological lens equation
Assuming that once the light transitions out of the vacuole all the Λ-bending stops, derived a contribution −Λbrv /3 to the bending, in which rv , the radial SdS coordinate of the vacuole boundary, replaces the coordinate of the observer ro .
The role of Lambda in the cosmological lens equation
This contribution is related to the distance from the vacuole boundary to the lens center and do not spring from coupling effects so that it should be incorporated in the total distance Dd from the observer to the lens.
The role of Lambda in the cosmological lens equation
Finally, integrated the light motion piecewise in a flat FRW solution and in the SdS metric and then pasted the geodesics together at the vacuole radius.
The role of Lambda in the cosmological lens equation
The quantity RES is known as the Einstein-Straus radius in the vacuole model.
Dark energy domination in the Virgocentric flow
Within the E-S vacuole, the spherical layer between the radii R0 and RES does not contain any mass.
Dark energy domination in the Virgocentric flow
The uppermost area in the photograph is the cell cytoplasm with a vacuole (V) evident.
Amphiphilic Membranes
With unusual specificity, Plaga (2005) surrounds the X-ray cluster Abell 194 with an Einstein-de Sitter vacuole, invoking Einstein and Strauss (1946), and we are not sure whether to count that as among the RMP astrophysics papers of the year or not.
Astrophysics in 2006
Later, this effect was re-examined in the framework of the ‘Swiss-Cheese’ (Dyer 1976) and ‘vacuole’ (Nottale 1984) models of density perturbations in an expanding background space-time.
Weak Gravitational Lensing
However the initial conditions necessarily imply evolution to a state where matching is not possible. A spherically symmetric static vacuole in a dust RW cosmology was shown to be possible and it was deduced that the observed cosmological expansion would not affect local physics on astrophysical scales.
On isotropic cylindrically symmetric stellar models
***