urine

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n urine liquid excretory product "there was blood in his urine","the child had to make water"
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Eating dandelions can make you urinate more
    • n Urine (Physiol) In mammals, a fluid excretion from the kidneys; in birds and reptiles, a solid or semisolid excretion.☞ In man, the urine is a clear, transparent fluid of an amber color and peculiar odor, with an average density of 1.02. The average amount excreted in 24 hours is from 40 to 60 ounces (about 1,200 cubic centimeters). Chemically, the urine is mainly an aqueous solution of urea, salt (sodium chloride), and uric acid, together with some hippuric acid and peculiar pigments. It usually has an acid reaction, owing to the presence of acid phosphates of soda or free uric acid. Normally, it contains about 960 parts of water to 40 parts of solid matter, and the daily average excretion is 35 grams (540 grains) of urea, 0.75 gram (11 grains) of uric acid, and 16.5 grams (260 grains) of salt. Abnormally, it may contain sugar as in diabetes, protein as in Bright's disease, bile pigments as in jaundice, or abnormal quantities of some one or more of the normal constituents.
    • v. i Urine To urinate.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Urophobia is the fear of urine or urinating
    • n urine The daily elimination of solids in the urine normally varies between 40 and 60 grams, of which almost 40 per cent. consists of mineral salts, the remainder of organic bodies. Of the mineral salts chlorids predominate, the amount, varying between 10 and 15 grams, being largely dependent upon the quantity ingested. As this in turn is greatly influenced by the appetite, the elimination of chlorids is, generally speaking, a fair index of the latter. Of other mineral salts sulphates and phosphates of the alkalis and the alkaline earths predominate; in addition there are traces of fluorides and nitrates. Among the organic waste products which appear in the urine of man urea is the most important. Fully 85 per cent. of the nitrogenous tissue-waste appears in this form. The daily amount varies to a great extent with the appetite and accordingly with the quantity of nitrogenous food consumed, but is on the whole fairly constant for one and the same individual: 20–30 grams per day may be regarded as a fair average, but, as overeating is on the whole very common, an elimination of 40–50 grams is not infrequently noted. In some of the lower animals, notably in birds and reptiles, uric acid is the principal nitrogenous component of the urine, while urea is found only in small amounts. In man it is unusual to meet with larger quantities than 0.6–1.0 gram in the twenty-four hours. In birds and reptiles it is formed synthetically in a manner quite analogous to the production of urea, but in man this mode of formation has not been satisfactorily demonstrated. Its origin here is to be sought in the destruction of nucleins, the resultant xanthin bases giving rise to uric acid on oxidation. Xanthin bases, comprising xanthin, hypoxanthin, guanine, carnin, paraxanthin, heteroxanthin, and episarcine, are found normally only in very small quantity; generally speaking, this represents about 10 per cent. of the amount of uric acid. Theobromine and caffein (derived from cocoa and coffee and tea, respectively) are partly eliminated in the urine as such, while in part they appear as methyl-xanthin (heteroxanthin). Among other organic components which are normally found in the urine are oxalic and oxaluric acid, creatinine, allantoin, hippuric acid, phenol, cresol, pyrocatechin, hydroquinone, indican, scatoxyl sulphate, glycuronic acid, various fatty acids, certain neutral sulphur bodies, such as sulphocyanides, oxy- and alloxy-proteinic acid, various pigments, ferments, etc. Collectively, these bodies are only present in very small amounts: they are in part of tissue origin, that is, metabolic waste products, and in part products of albuminous putrefaction, formed in the intestinal canal. Among the latter indican and scatoxyl sulphate merit especial attention. The mother-substances of the two are indol and skatol, respectively, which, after oxidation to indoxyl and scatoxyl, unite with sulphuric acid, and are then eliminated as the corresponding sodium and potassium salts. Both indoxyl and scatoxyl are chromogens and on oxidation give rise to various pigments, of which the indigo blue derived from indican is the most abundant. The amount of the latter is, roughly speaking, an index of the degree of intestinal putrefaction. Under certain conditions, which are as yet but little understood but which can scarcely be classified as pathological, still other substances appear in the urine, among which cystin and alkapton (homogentisinic acid) are the most noteworthy. Both cystinuria and alkaptonuria are the expression of curious metabolic anomalies. Both may occur in families, and commonly appear early in life and persist throughout. In the case of alkaptonuria it has been shown that consanguinity of the parents may be an etiological factor, but in cystinuria this is not the case. Neither condition per se is pathological, but, owing to the readiness with which cystin separates from the urine in solid form, and the resultant disturbances in the course of the urinary tract, cystinuria in a general way tends to shorten life. Associated with cystinuria there is at times diaminuria (appearance of putrescin and cadaverin). Under pathological conditions marked quantitative variations occur both in the amount of urine per se, as also in its various normal components, depending to a great-extent upon diminished ingestion of food and increased tissue-waste. Of abnormal constituents which may be met with in disease, the most notable are the serum albumin and serum globulin of the blood, blood as such, albumoses, sugar (dextrose), diacetic acid, beta-oxybutyric acid, lactic acid, biliary constituents, chyle, certain abnormal chromogens, pigments, etc. Traces of albumin may be met with in some individuals who are apparently in perfect health (physiological albuminuria), but, generally speaking, albuminuria is a pathological phenomenon, though not necessarily the indication of a nephritis. The renal epithelium responds to any abnormal stimulus with albuminuria, and it is thus readily understood that the condition may be merely temporary and of comparatively little significance. Long-continued albuminuria, however, especially when occurring in individuals who have reached maturity, and in whom a direct cause of the anomaly is not at once apparent, should always be viewed with anxiety. The amount of albumin which may appear in the urine varies from just discernible traces to 1.5–3 per cent. The largest amounts of albumin are met with in a comparatively rare disease, multiple myelomatosis, in which a peculiar albuminous substance, differing from the common albumins of the blood, is met with, the so-called albumin of Bence Jones. The daily elimination may here equal the entire amount of the blood albumins. The elimination of glucose (glucosuria), like that of albumin, is essentially an abnormal phenomenon, and is observed in a large number of pathological conditions, but may also follow the ingestion of excessive amounts of sugar in normal individuals. In disease it may be either temporary or permanent. The latter occurs in diabetes mellitus. In such cases, particularly when advanced, acetone, diacetic, and betaoxybutyric acid are also present, but may likewise occur in other conditions. The ensemble, however, is especially characteristic of the disease in question. Biliary constituents are met with whenever the outflow of bile through the natural channels is impeded. Of the pathological chromogens, finally, one merits especial consideration. It is met with notably in typhoid fever, and on treatment with diazobenzone sulphonic acid, in the presence of ammonia, such urine gives rise to a garnet-red color. Its presence, though observed in other pathological conditions also, is especially constant in typhoid fever and of distinct diagnostic importance. In cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, where the reaction is also encountered, its occurrence is generally viewed as a symptom of grave prognostic import. The chemical nature of the substance in question has not been satisfactorily established.
    • n urine An excrementitious fluid excreted by the kidneys, holding in solution most of the nitrogenous and other soluble products of tissue-change. Normal urine is of a clear amber or citron-yellow color, a brackish taste, a peculiar odor, a faintly acid reaction, and a specific gravity ranging from 1.015 to 1.025. Within the limits of health, however, it varies greatly in color, reaction, and density, according to the age, occupation, and diet of the individual, the time of day, and the season of the year. That passed in the morning upon rising is usually chosen for analysis, as presenting the average characteristics of the entire quantity excreted during the twenty-four hours. The average amount passed during this period is estimated at between three and four pints. The proportion of solid matters contained in every hundred parts of urine varies from three to seven parts or more, from 45 to 55 per cent, of which is urea, the rest being chlorid of sodium, phosphates, sulphates, ammonia, extractive matters, and uric acid. The chemical analysis of the urine and the microscopical examination of its sediment are important aids in the diagnosis and prognosis of many diseases. After its excretion in the cortical part of the kidney the urine passes at once through the ureters to the bladder, where it is held for a period and voided through the urethra at the will of the individual.
    • urine To discharge urine; urinate.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: A 13-year-old boy in India produced winged beetles in his urine after hatching the eggs in his body
    • n Urine ū′rin the fluid which is secreted or separated by the kidneys from the blood and conveyed to the bladder—the principal means of removing the worn-out tissues, esp. the nitrogenous and saline matters, from the system
    • n Urine a reservoir for keeping urine
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Quotations

  • William Shakespeare
    William%20Shakespeare
    “Macduff: What three things does drink especially provoke? Porter: Marry, sir, nose-painting, sleep, and urine.”
  • William Shakespeare
    William%20Shakespeare
    “Some men there are love not a gaping pig, some that are mad if they behold a cat, and others when the bagpipe sings I the nose cannot contain their urine.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F. urine, L. urina,; akin to urinari, to plunge under water, to dive, Gr. urine; cf. Skr. vār, water, Icel. r, drizzling rain, AS. wær, the sea

Usage

In literature:

Its extraction was followed by a gush of urine, and for several days the man suffered from incontinence of urine and feces.
"Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine" by George M. Gould
They drank urine cooled in their brazen helmets.
"Salammbo" by Gustave Flaubert
They purify themselves with the dung and urine of cows, and think themselves defiled by the touch of a man!
"The Ruins" by C. F. [Constantin Francois de] Volney
One, after a long stoppage of urine, voided a knotty barley straw.
"Essays and Miscellanies" by Plutarch
How many doubts and controversies have they amongst themselves upon the interpretation of urines?
"The Essays of Montaigne, Complete" by Michel de Montaigne
Dead breaths I living breathe, tread dead dust, devour a urinous offal from all dead.
"Ulysses" by James Joyce
The first effect of starvation is the disappearance of fat, and this fat cannot be traced either in the urine or in the scanty faeces.
"Familiar Letters of Chemistry" by Justus Liebig
Sometimes he would make a mixture of sand and urine, with which he would smear his head or body.
"Spinifex and Sand" by David W Carnegie
Upon that Loupgarou thought that he had pierced his bladder, and that the wine that came forth had been his urine.
"Gargantua and Pantagruel, Book II." by Francois Rabelais
Besides, man, your chemists extract the best saltpetre in the world out of their urine.
"Gargantua and Pantagruel, Book IV." by Francois Rabelais
I spied Peter Gilles among these, with a urinal in his hand, narrowly watching the water of those goodly fishes.
"Gargantua and Pantagruel, Book V." by Francois Rabelais
The urine was highly albuminous.
"Scientific American Supplement No. 299" by Various
J, Vegetation in the urine of ague during paroxysm.
"Scientific American Supplement, No. 384, May 12, 1883" by Various
Normal urine consists of about 96 per cent of water and 4 per cent of solids.
"A Practical Physiology" by Albert F. Blaisdell
Diuretics are medicines which promote an increased secretion of urine.
"Enquire Within Upon Everything" by Anonymous
Urine had clots in it and symptoms resembled those in the first case.
"On Snake-Poison: its Action and its Antidote" by A. Mueller
It was stated that nearly the whole of the urine and dung was deposited below.
"The Pig" by Sanders Spencer
Those that have received the drink walk by, till they can make urine, and then they are thereby free'd.
"The Strange Adventures of Andrew Battell" by Andrew Battell
In the Sweating process it is necessary to place a urinal in the bed of the patient.
"Every Man his own Doctor" by R. T. Claridge
With reference to the formation of the urinal cloaca there is not much to say.
"The Works of Francis Maitland Balfour, Volume 1" by Francis Maitland Balfour
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In poetry:

light's useless time away.
I stood, holding my breath,
in urine-scented hay,
master of life and death,
a wisp-haired judge whose law
would punish beak and claw.
"Barn Owl" by Gwen Harwood
Across the hall is the bedpan station.
The urine and stools pass hourly by my head
in silver bowls. They flush in unison
in the autoclave. My one dozen roses are dead.
"The Break" by Anne Sexton

In news:

News has been trickling in this weekend about Michigan's latest weapon in the fight against drunk driving – talking urinal cakes.
Duchamp's Urinal Has Nothing on Boetti's Steamer: Review.
The urinal cake is talking to me.
A photo of a talking urinal cake from the website of Wizmark, the manufacturer.
Talking urinal cakes used to curb drunk driving in Michigan.
Courtesy photo The state is distributing urinal cakes with sensors that play a recorded message reminding bar-goers to call a cab or friend for a ride home instead of driving drunk.
Men who use the restrooms in certain Michigan bars could be in for a surprise when they hear a female voice coming from the urinal .
Arby's urinal burns a customer's genitals, lawsuit says.
A man is suing a Colorado Arby's after allegedly suffering genital burns from the restaurant's urinal .
Sega's Newest Video Game Console is…a Urinal .
TOKYO – Japanese video game developer Sega hopes to make a splash with a new console that allows men to play games while using urinals .
Japanese video game developer Sega hopes to make a splash with a new console that allows men to play games while using urinals .
Waterless Co, developer of the original Waterless No-Flush™ urinal , introduces a new line of no-water urinals specially made for home use.
" The ad cited Phyllis Fox's research and concluded, "This is not a union issue… Waterless urinals are a threat to t...
But Krug made a conceptual breakthrough: The real profits wouldn't come from the urinals themselves.
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In science:

Each ferrous ion is surrounded by a distorted octahedron of flurine ( F − ) ions.
Domains and Interfaces in Random Fields
Each ferrous ion is surrounded by a distorted octahedron of flurine ( F − ) ions.
Random Field Ising Model
Of medical interest is the hypothesis that digoxin clearance is independent of urine flow controlling for creatinine clearance, i.e., Y ⊥⊥Z |X .
Nonparametric testing of conditional independence by means of the partial copula
Note: X= Creatinine clearance, Y = digoxin clearance, Z= urine flow.
Nonparametric testing of conditional independence by means of the partial copula
Reagent strips for the qualitative detection of alcohol in urine: SIMS-2 alcoho l sensor.
Influence of Alcohol Smell and Imagination on the Condition of the Human Organism and Subjective Human Experience
The presence of alcoho l in urine was est imated.
Influence of Alcohol Smell and Imagination on the Condition of the Human Organism and Subjective Human Experience
The presence of alcohol in urine was est imated.
Influence of Alcohol Smell and Imagination on the Condition of the Human Organism and Subjective Human Experience
In fact, while the record values of several long distance running events, like 5000m or 10000m improved drastically after the introduction of blood doping with erythropoietin, almost no records were set in the throwing events since anabolic drugs became detectable in urine samples [2, 3].
Records in stochastic processes -- Theory and applications
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