under

Definitions

  • Passenger Vessel Under Sail
    Passenger Vessel Under Sail
  • WordNet 3.6
    • adj under lower in rank, power, or authority "an under secretary"
    • adj under located below or beneath something else "nether garments","the under parts of a machine"
    • adv under further down "see under for further discussion"
    • adv under down below "get under quickly!"
    • adv under below the horizon "the sun went under"
    • adv under below some quantity or limit "fifty dollars or under"
    • adv under in or into a state of subordination or subjugation "we must keep our disappointment under"
    • adv under down to defeat, death, or ruin "their competitors went under"
    • adv under into unconsciousness "this will put the patient under"
    • adv under through a range downward "children six and under will be admitted free"
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Jacques, with his crutches, sits on a bench under a tree Jacques, with his crutches, sits on a bench under a tree
Both under Arms Both under Arms
Mr Punch under arrest Mr Punch under arrest
Supper Under Difficulties 115 Supper Under Difficulties 115
The giant carries the Prince under one arm The giant carries the Prince under one arm
The mermaid and the prince under the sea The mermaid and the prince under the sea
127. Under side of head of Diplax 127. Under side of head of Diplax
Under Canvas Under Canvas

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Thirty percent of all bingo players are under the age of 35
    • Under Below or lower, in place or position, with the idea of being covered; lower than; beneath; -- opposed to over; as, he stood under a tree; the carriage is under cover; a cellar extends under the whole house. "Fruit put in bottles, and the bottles let down into wells under water, will keep long.""Be gathered now, ye waters under heaven,
      Into one place."
    • Under Denoting relation to some thing or person that is superior, weighs upon, oppresses, bows down, governs, directs, influences powerfully, or the like, in a relation of subjection, subordination, obligation, liability, or the like; as, to travel under a heavy load; to live under extreme oppression; to have fortitude under the evils of life; to have patience under pain, or under misfortunes; to behave like a Christian under reproaches and injuries; under the pains and penalties of the law; the condition under which one enters upon an office; under the necessity of obeying the laws; under vows of chastity.
    • Under Denoting relation to something that comprehends or includes, that represents or designates, that furnishes a cover, pretext, pretense, or the like; as, he betrayed him under the guise of friendship; Morpheus is represented under the figure of a boy asleep.
    • Under Denoting relation to something that exceeds in rank or degree, in number, size, weight, age, or the like; in a relation of the less to the greater, of inferiority, or of falling short.
    • adv Under ŭn"dẽr In a lower, subject, or subordinate condition; in subjection; -- used chiefly in a few idiomatic phrases; as, to bring under, to reduce to subjection; to subdue; to keep under, to keep in subjection; to control; to go under, to be unsuccessful; to fail; to go bankrupt.Under is often used in composition with a verb to indicate lowness or inferiority in position or degree, in the act named by the verb; as, to underline; to undermine; to underprop. "I keep under my body, and bring it into subjection.""The minstrel fell, but the foeman's chain
      Could not bring his proud soul under ."
    • Under Less specifically, denoting the relation of being subject, of undergoing regard, treatment, or the like; as, a bill under discussion.
    • a Under Lower in position, intensity, rank, or degree; subject; subordinate; -- generally in composition with a noun, and written with or without the hyphen; as, an undercurrent; undertone; underdose; under-garment; underofficer; undersheriff.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: An armadillo can walk under water
    • under Below; beneath: expressing position with reference to that which is above, whether in immediate contact or not, or which towers aloft, surmounts, covers, or overtops: as, all under heaven; under the earth or the sea; under the surface; under the table; to take shelter under a tree; to live under the same roof; to hide a thing under a heap of straw; to hide one's light under a bushel; to overhear a conversation under one's windows.
    • under In or at a place, point, or position that is lower than; further down than; immediately below: as, to hit a man under the belt; to have pains under the arms.
    • under In the position or state of, or while bearing, supporting, sustaining, receiving, suffering, undergoing, or the like: as, to sink under a load; to act under great excitement.
    • under Inferior to in point of rank, dignity, social position, or the like.
    • under Inferior to or less than, with respect to number, amount, quantity, value, age, etc.; falling short of; in or to a less degree than; hence, at, for, or with less than: as, it cannot be bought under $20.
    • under Of sounds, inferior to, in pitch.
    • under Subject to. In a position of submission or subordination to.
    • under Liable or exposed to: as, under fire; under the penalty of fine or imprisonment.
    • under Subject to the government, rule, command, direction, orders, guidance, or instruction of: as, to serve under Wellington; I studied under him; to sit under a favorite preacher.
    • under Subject to the influence or operation of; actuated by.
    • under In accordance with; in conformity with: as, to sell out under the rule.
    • under Bound by: as, to be under bonds, or a vow.
    • under In: with reference to circumstances.
    • under In: with reference to category, division, section, class, etc.: as, to treat several topics under one head.
    • under In course of: as, to be under treatment, or under discussion.
    • under In the form or style of; by the appearance or show of; with the character, designation, pretense, pretext, or cover of.
    • under During the time or existence of: said especially of rulers and their period of rule: as, Christ suffered under Pontius Pilate; the Armada was destroyed under the reign of Elizabeth; the American revolution broke out under the administration of Lord North.
    • under With the sanction, authorization, permission, or protection of: as, under favor; under leave; under protection, etc.
    • under [The preposition under in adverbial phrases often coalesces with its noun to form an adverb, from which the adjective or noun may be derived: as, under ground, ⟩ underground, adverb, ⟩ underground, a.; under hand, ⟩ underhand, adverb, ⟩ underhand, adjective; so underboard, underearth, underfoot, etc. Such forms are not true compounds, but are coalesced phrases, like aground, aboard, afoot, etc.]
    • under In a state of subjection.
    • under Nautical, directly under the bow: said of an anchor when the chain is up and down.
    • under In a lower place; in a lower, subject, or subordinate condition or degree. The adverb under is much used in composition— With verbs and participles, and some nouns, indicating inferiority of place, ‘below, from below, on the lower part or surface,’ as in underbrace, underlay, undermine, underpin, underprop, etc.; indicating insufficiency, ‘insufficiently, imperfectly, below the required standard,’ as in underbred, underdone, underpaid, underrate, understate, etc.
    • under Lower in position; situated beneath: opposed to upper: as, the under side; the under mandible.
    • under Lower in rank or degree. See under, adverb, note .
    • under Of sounds, lower in pitch.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: In Belgium, 94% of children under the age of fourteen own LEGO products
    • prep Under un′dėr in a lower position than: beneath: below: less than, falling short of: in subjection, subordination, oppression, liability, &c.: during the time of: undergoing: in accordance with: in, in course of
    • adv Under in a lower degree or condition: in subjection: below: less
    • adj Under lower in position, rank, or degree: subject: subordinate
    • ***

Quotations

  • George Chapman
    George Chapman
    “Let no man under value the price of a virtuous woman's counsel.”
  • B(urrhus) F(rederic) Skinner
    B(urrhus) F(rederic) Skinner
    “A failure is not always a mistake, it may simply be the best one can do under the circumstances. The real mistake is to stop trying.”
  • Virgil
    Virgil
    “Our fate, whatever it is to be, will be overcome by patience under it.”
  • F. L. Lucan
    F. L. Lucan
    “Great fear is concealed under daring.”
  • Johann Friedrich Von Schiller
    Johann%20Friedrich%20Von%20Schiller
    “Grace is the beauty of form under the influence of freedom.”
  • Julius Robert Oppenheimer
    Julius Robert Oppenheimer
    “The foolish man seeks happiness in the distance; The wise grows it under his feet.”

Idioms

Brush under the carpet - If you brush something under the carpet, you are making an attempt to ignore it, or hide it from others.
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Bur under my saddle - A bur under your saddle is something that annoys you or spurs you into action.('Burr' is an alternative spelling.)
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Go under the hammer - If something goes under the hammer, it is sold in an auction.
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Hot under the collar - If you're hot under the collar, you're feeling angry or bothered.
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Keep it under your hat - If you keep something under your hat, you keep it secret.
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Knock the pins from under someone - If someone knocks the pins from under you, they let you down.
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Reds under the bed - An ironic allusion to the obsession some people have that there are reds (communists) everywhere plotting violent revolution.
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Sail under false colours - Someone who sails under false colours (colors) is hypocritical or pretends to be something they aren't in order to deceive people.
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Six feet under - If someone is six feet under, they are dead.
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Sweep things under the carpet - If people try to ignore unpleasant things and forget about them, they sweep them under the carpet.
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Take someone under your wing - If you take someone under your wing, you look after them while they are learning something.
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Throw someone under the bus - To throw someone under the bus is to get the person in trouble either by placing blame on that person or not standing up for him.
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Under a cloud - If someone is suspected of having done something wrong, they are under a cloud.
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Under a flag of convenience - If a ship sails under a flag of convenience, it is registered in a country where taxes, etc, are lower than in the country it comes from, so if someone does something under a flag of convenience, they attempt to avoid regulations and taxes by a similar means.
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Under false colours - If someone does something under false colours/colors, they pretend to be something they are not in order to deceive people so that they can succeed.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
AS. under, prep. & adv.; akin to OFries. under, OS. undar, D. onder, G. unter, OHG. untar, Icel. undir, Sw. & Dan. under, Goth. undar, L. infra, below, inferior, lower, Skr. adhas, below. √201. Cf. Inferior

Usage

In literature:

Another, employed especially during Thomas Cromwell's ministry under Henry VIII.
"The Governments of Europe" by Frederic Austin Ogg
In 1656, under Conde, they beat off the French under Turenne, and it was only in 1677 that Louis XIV.
"France and the Republic" by William Henry Hurlbert
Even under the bronze there could be seen dark circles under their eyes, and their lips were without colour.
"The Long Roll" by Mary Johnston
Ancient maps show the islands and provinces under a different nomenclature.
"The Philippine Islands" by John Foreman
These ports did great service under Henry the Third and Edward the First.
"How Britannia Came to Rule the Waves" by W.H.G. Kingston
They were both tucked under one great buffalo robe now.
"The Heart of Unaga" by Ridgwell Cullum
All of which is set down, not without underlying pathos, in the diary of that date.
"The History of Sir Richard Calmady" by Lucas Malet
They have been under my command and I have been under theirs.
"A Report of the Debates and Proceedings in the Secret Sessions of the Conference Convention" by Lucius Eugene Chittenden
He was educated under the auspices of the celebrated Greek scholar Reuchlin, who was also a relative.
"A Modern History, From the Time of Luther to the Fall of Napoleon" by John Lord
Then he fell upon the huge stick, rolled under it, and shoved arms and legs under the foot of the sail.
"Blow The Man Down" by Holman Day
The Athenian ships formed the right and centre of its leading line, the fleet of the Peloponnesus under the veteran Eurybiades was on the left.
"Famous Sea Fights" by John Richard Hale
I've gone under hundreds of times before.
"Joe Strong, the Boy Fish" by Vance Barnum
Under Asa, and also under Josiah, the people in their civil capacity with their rulers Covenanted too.
"The Ordinance of Covenanting" by John Cunningham
With a mournful howl he ducked under the flap, Bela after him.
"The Huntress" by Hulbert Footner
The star-studded surface under his feet shook a little.
"Shaman" by Robert Shea
To children under nine years of age, only half the above quantity must be given.
"The Cook and Housekeeper's Complete and Universal Dictionary; Including a System of Modern Cookery, in all Its Various Branches," by Mary Eaton
Another way is to have a friend who knows the plants go with you, and thus you learn under a teacher as a pupil learns in school.
"The Mushroom, Edible and Otherwise" by M. E. Hard
Neither are they men who will sit down under oppression.
"Ireland as It Is" by Robert John Buckley (AKA R.J.B.)
Put 6 under b, over cd, under ef, over gh, under ij and over k. Put 7 over b, under c, over de, under fg, over hi, under jk.
"Philippine Mats" by Hugo H. Miller
She considers that Gwen is not acting under the influence of ... under the usual motives.
"When Ghost Meets Ghost" by William Frend De Morgan
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In poetry:

The old man
lies in mud and blood.
Under him he feels
the books.
"He Was Lucky" by Anna Swirszczynska
I am breathing under water!
I am drowning...
drowning...
drowning...
"Letter From Under The Sea" by Nizar Qabbani
I did not, could not know
What had been done.
Under some evil drag
I lived as one
"When Childhood Died" by John Freeman
I saw it in my evening walk
A little lonely flower —
Under a hollow bank it grew
Deep in a mossy bower.
"The Primrose" by Caroline Anne Bowles Southey
For under the year's broad shadow,
Along the upward way,
Our footsteps often falter,
And oftea wander astray.
"Christmas Hymn" by Kate Seymour Maclean
And still they hear the craiking sound
And still they wonder why
It surely cant be under ground
Nor is it in the sky
"The Landrail" by John Clare

In news:

The remains of the property that was first the Thunderbird, then the Silverbird and finally the El Rancho was imploded under the force of 700 pounds of explosives in front of more than 2,000 onlookers just after 2:30 this morning.
MARION, Iowa – A death investigation is under way in Marion after a body was discovered Monday morning.
A 21-year-old southwestern Idaho woman who police say shot a man from behind and then hid his body under a house has been charged with first-degree murder.
Christopher Justin Garrett of 160 Clear Creek, Liberty was arrested by Smithville Police on Sunday, July 11th for public intoxication and under age consumption of alcohol.
The Titans' defense, under the coordinator Jim Schwartz, is ranked sixth in the N.F.L.
This entry was posted on Wednesday, November 17th, 2010 at 7:30 pm and is filed under.
Hampton Roads Academy player Grace Prillaman won the girls 16-and-under round-robin competition Saturday in the Newport News Junior Satellite tournament at Huntington Park.
Cooking Out Under the Stars.
Oregonians are passionate about how we treat our trees, especially those that fall under the heading "old growth".
It started with a lightning strike Monday and was deemed under control at 8:47 p.m.
Living in a shack under Tokyo's elevated expressway, Hiroshi finds himself hitting an invisible wall - his age.
Posted Feb 20, 2012 11:05 am by Jim Callis Filed under: Draft Dope.
Another belt under the hood of most cars is hidden under a cover at the front of the engine.
For example, personal finance site Confused.com says the average British man under 20 pays $4,675 a year, but the average woman under 20 pays $2,441.
The Justice Department reports that just under 7 million adults were under some kind of supervision by federal, state or local corrections officers at the end of last year.
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In science:

Following we are looking for solutions being symmetric under y → −y and periodic under y → y + 2y0 .
Fine-Tuning of the Cosmological Constant in Brane Worlds
Note, however that this configuration is not gauge invariant under U (1) rotations in the 12 and 34 planes—only under a ZN subgroup of each of these U (1)’s.
M(atrix) Theory: Matrix Quantum Mechanics as a Fundamental Theory
Jennifer found that there was yet another mode (mode IV?) which is symmetric under Rplane and antisymmetric under Rcross .
Formal Considerations about Fracture: Nucleation and Growth
This condensate is a singlet under Gs (n + 1 2 ), but transforms as ({m}, { ¯m}) under the groups (G(n), G(n + 1)).
4d Gauge Theory and Gravity Generated from 3d Ones at High Energy
Let X be the underlying ob ject for (δ ⊗A γ ) ⊗A ρ and Y the underlying ob ject for δ ⊗A (γ ⊗A ρ).
The categorical theory of relations and quantizations
This term is obviously invariant under the global U (1) transformations defined by S →eiΛS but not under its local version.
Generalized Noncommutative Supersymmetry from a New Gauge Symmetry
In particular, T is closed under kernels, images and cokernels, and also under direct sums.
Infinite dimensional representations of canonical algebras
We will also need to describe the behavior of Kawamata log-terminal pairs under finite morphisms, in particular under quotient morphisms.
McKay correspondence for elliptic genera
Under the probability Qλ,k defined by Girsanov’s change associated to this martingale, (Sp)p≥0 has the law of the following shifted random walk under P : ˜Sp = Sp + ˜λ(cid:16) p ∧ 1(cid:17) .
Upper bound of a volume exponent for directed polymers in a random environment
It is visibly invariant under translation by s on E \ E0 , is preserved under gluing and can be extended from E \ E0 to E ′ .
Special elliptic fibrations
These solution curves are not only preserved under translations, as is true in general, but also under affine transformations of the parameter s 7→ as + b for constants a, b with a 6= 0.
Generalized Sprays and Nonlinear Connections
The orbit under the action of Dm breaks into two orbits under the action of the subgroup Cm .
Quantum circuits for single-qubit measurements corresponding to platonic solids
Under the Coulomb potential, the exponent β of non-equilibrium energy relaxation function is 0.52 while under Lennard-Jones potential it is 0.73.
Relaxation in open one-dimensional systems
Under the action of the two twists the torus with parameters (ǫ, δ) is shifted under (−, +, −) by (a, 0) and under (+, −, −) by (0, b).
On the Number of Chiral Generations in Z2 X Z2 Orbifolds
While the Newton’s theory is invariant under the gauge transformation V 7→ V + C , and ILLTG is invariant under the gauge transformation µ 7→ C µ, GR does not posses similar property.
New Relativistic Equations of Motion and Their Comparison with the Equations from the General Relativity
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