The principal structures which unite in the formation of a joint are: bone, cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments.
"A Practical Physiology" by Albert F. Blaisdell
From no surface in the body can absorption take place quicker than from the synovial membrane of a joint.
"Diseases of the Horse's Foot" by Harry Caulton Reeks
It is often stated that a ganglion originates from a hernial protrusion of the synovial membrane of a joint or tendon sheath.
"Manual of Surgery" by Alexis Thomson and Alexander Miles
This is a constitutional inflammatory affection of the joints, affecting the fibrous tissue and serous, or synovial membrane.
"Cattle and Their Diseases" by Robert Jennings
The synovial layer also is torn, and the joint becomes filled with blood and synovial fluid.
"Manual of Surgery Volume Second: Extremities--Head--Neck. Sixth Edition." by Alexander Miles
In some cases of injury and disease, the synovial fluid is secreted in large quantities, and distends the sac of the joint.
"A Treatise on Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene (Revised Edition)" by Calvin Cutter
A capped hock is an inflammatory swelling of the bursa, or protective synovial capsule that surrounds a joint, at the point of the hock .
The joint cannot be cracked again until the gases have dissolved back into the synovial fluid, which explains why you cannot crack the same knuckle repeatedly.
When it does occur, it usually develops in the large synovial joints (e.g.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks flexible (synovial) joints.