supernatant

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • adj supernatant of a liquid; floating on the surface above a sediment or precipitate "the supernatant fat was skimmed off"
    • n supernatant the clear liquid that lies above a sediment or precipitate
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • a Supernatant Swimming above; floating on the surface; as, oil supernatant on water.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • supernatant Swimming above; floating on the surface.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • adj Supernatant sū-pėr-nā′tant floating on the surface
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. supernatanus, p. pr. of supernatare, to swim above; super, above + natare, to swim
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. supernatāresuper, above, natāre, to swim.

Usage

In literature:

The supernatant fluid is then gently poured off.
"Scientific American Supplement, No. 303" by Various
When the reduction has been completed, the supernatant liquid is poured off, and the residue washed in the ordinary manner.
"Scientific American Supplement No. 299" by Various
The supernatant ether, however, was slightly turbid in appearance, a fact which was at first ignored.
"Scientific American Supplement, No. 829, November 21, 1891" by Various
The mass is then boiled, when the supernatant oil is removed by skimming.
"The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom" by P. L. Simmonds
When cold, he pours off the supernatant fluid, and repeats the boiling three times at least with a fresh portion of water.
"The Art of Perfumery" by G. W. Septimus Piesse
If you have much supernatant Liquor, you may parboil more Mushrooms next day, and put them to the first.
"The Closet of Sir Kenelm Digby Knight Opened" by Kenelm Digby
The supernatant liquid will exhibit a fine blue colour, if the minutest quantity of copper be present.
"A Treatise on Adulterations of Food, and Culinary Poisons" by Fredrick Accum
NATUR: nat'ural (-ist, -ize, -ization); preternat'ural; supernat'ural.
"New Word-Analysis" by William Swinton
The solid precipitate is permitted to sink, and the clear supernatant liquid is limpid soft water.
"Fragments of science, V. 1-2" by John Tyndall
Pour off the supernatant liquor as soon as it is clear, add some fresh water (rain water is preferable) to the precipitate, and agitate.
"Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Volume 57, No. 356, June, 1845" by Various
SUPERNATANT PART OF A SHIP.
"The Sailor's Word-Book" by William Henry Smyth
When the supernatant liquid has become perfectly transparent, it is carefully decanted.
"Peat and its Uses as Fertilizer and Fuel" by Samuel William Johnson
Allow undissolved powder to settle, then decant the supernatant fluid to a clean 100 c.c.
"The Elements of Bacteriological Technique" by John William Henry Eyre
When the beating is finished, the precipitated indigo is allowed to settle, the supernatant liquid being drawn off and run to waste.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 14, Slice 4" by Various
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In news:

We are operating an old plate-and-frame filter press to filter polymer from the water/ascetic acid supernatent produced in the process.
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In science:

After centrifugation, the supernatant was diluted with acidified 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 4.0; final methanol concentration, 15%) and applied to activated octadecylsilyl (ODS)-silica reverse-phase columns (Sep-Pak C18, Waters Associates, Milford, MA, USA).
Post-ischaemic treatment with the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor nimesulide reduces blood-brain barrier disruption and leukocyte infiltration following transient focal cerebral ischaemia in rats
The supernatant was discarded and the pellet was washed again as described above. After decanting the supernatant, the pellet was extracted by suspension in 10 times the volume of 0.5% hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB, Sigma-Aldrich) in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) at 25°C.
Post-ischaemic treatment with the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor nimesulide reduces blood-brain barrier disruption and leukocyte infiltration following transient focal cerebral ischaemia in rats
MPO activity in the supernatant was assayed as described before (Biagas et al. 1992).
Post-ischaemic treatment with the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor nimesulide reduces blood-brain barrier disruption and leukocyte infiltration following transient focal cerebral ischaemia in rats
The effect of target molecule depletion from the supernatant solution is incorporated into a physico-chemical model of hybridisation on oligonucleotide microarrays.
Physico-chemical modelling of target depletion during hybridisation on oligonulceotide microarrays
Refinements of the model to include the effects of probe and target folding and bulk hybridisation in the supernatant solution [5, 16] maintain the hyperbolic shape of the response function while decreasing the effective adsorption rate constant.
Physico-chemical modelling of target depletion during hybridisation on oligonulceotide microarrays
The above physico-chemical models generally assume that the concentration of target molecules in the supernatant solution is not appreciably depleted by the hybridisation reaction.
Physico-chemical modelling of target depletion during hybridisation on oligonulceotide microarrays
By local depletion we mean that depletion of target molecules in the supernatant solution by a hybridisation to a given probe feature only affects that particular probe feature.
Physico-chemical modelling of target depletion during hybridisation on oligonulceotide microarrays
By global depletion we mean that all probe features responding to a given target species are mutually affected by depletion of that species from the supernatant solution.
Physico-chemical modelling of target depletion during hybridisation on oligonulceotide microarrays
Full details of our local and global depletion models, including specific and nonspecific hybridisation of target molecules to probes at the microarray surface and of targets within the supernatant solution and the folding of target and probe molecules, are set out in Appendix A.
Physico-chemical modelling of target depletion during hybridisation on oligonulceotide microarrays
Other than the work of Ono et al. and a related pro ject , we are aware of only one other extensive attempt to incorporate target depletion from the supernatant solution during hybridisation into a physico-chemical model of microarrays, namely a recent publication by Li et al. .
Physico-chemical modelling of target depletion during hybridisation on oligonulceotide microarrays
In a previous analysis the U95a data set was shown to fit very well, and the U133 data set moderately well, to a physico-chemical model in which the target concentration was assumed not to be significantly depleted from the supernatant solution by hybridisation to the microarray surface.
Physico-chemical modelling of target depletion during hybridisation on oligonulceotide microarrays
As well as probe-target hybridisation, bulk hybridisation and probe and target folding, the important innovation is a careful consideration of depletion of target molecules from the supernatant solution by hybridisation of specific targets.
Physico-chemical modelling of target depletion during hybridisation on oligonulceotide microarrays
It must include not only systematic correction for the effects such as non-specific background, saturation and sequencespecific binding affinities of probes , but also, as we have shown, depletion of targets from the supernatant solution.
Physico-chemical modelling of target depletion during hybridisation on oligonulceotide microarrays
The model differs from previous models considered by the current authors [5, 13] in that the Ono model of target depletion from the supernatant solution by hybridisation to the array is included.
Physico-chemical modelling of target depletion during hybridisation on oligonulceotide microarrays
KT [T ] + KN [N ] Li et al. incorporate target depletion by hybridisation from the supernatant solution by making the substitution [T ] = ˆT − αp, where ˆT is the nominal spike-in concentration.
Physico-chemical modelling of target depletion during hybridisation on oligonulceotide microarrays
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