sulphate

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n sulphate a salt or ester of sulphuric acid
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Sulphate (Chem) A salt of sulphuric acid.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n sulphate A salt of sulphuric acid. The acid is dibasic, forming two classes of salts—neutral sulphates, in which both hydrogen atoms of the acid are replaced by basic radicals, and acid sulphates, in which only one of the hydrogen atoms is so replaced. Most sulphates are readily soluble in water, while a few, as calcium, strontium, and lead sulphates, are very sparingly soluble, and barium sulphate is insoluble in water and dilute acids. The sulphates are widely and abundantly distributed in nature. Gypsum and anhydrite are calcium sulphates. Epsom salts and Glauber salts, contained in all sea-waters, are magnesium sulphate and sodium sulphate respectively. Barytes or heavy-spar, used on account of its high specific gravity (4.3 to 4.7) as an adulterant and makeweight, is barium sulphate. Anglesite, or lead sulphate, is an ore of lead. Many other sulphates occur in nature in smaller quantity. Of the sulphates artificially prepared may be mentioned sodium sulphate, or salt-cake (made from salt on an enormous scale as the first step in the manufacture of sodium carbonate), and ammonium sulphate (made extensively from gas liquor, and used for preparing other ammonia salts and as a fertilizer). Zinc sulphate, or white vitriol, is used in medicine as an astringent and a tonic, and in larger doses as an emetic. In overdoses it acts as an irritant poison. Copper sulphate, or blue vitriol, is made on an enormous scale, and is used in preparing pigments (Scheele's green, Paris green, etc.), in calico-printing, in electrometallurgy, and in horticulture, particularly by vineyardists, as a fungicide. It is used in medicine, chiefly as a feeble escharotic for exuberant granulations, and as a local stimulant. Aluminium sulphate, called concentrated alum or sulphate of alumina, is used as a mordant and makeweight and for preparing alums. Ferrous sulphate, or green vitriol, is used as a mordant and for the manufacture of inks, Prussian blue, etc. The alkaloids morphine, atropin, quinine, etc., are generally administered in the form of sulphates.
    • sulphate To form a deposit of lead sulphate on, as a lead plate or plates of a secondary battery or a secondary cell.
    • sulphate To convert (red lead used as a coloring material, as on placards) into lead sulphate by means of dilute sulphuric acid.
    • sulphate To form a sulphate (especially a lead sulphate) deposit.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Sulphate a salt formed by sulphuric acid with a base
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
NL. sulphas, sulphatis, fr. L. sulphur, sulfur, brimstone, sulphur: cf. F. sulfate,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. sulphur; said to be conn. with Sans. çulvāri.

Usage

In literature:

For transparent colored bottles, instead of sponge, the perfumers use what they call insoluble crystal salts (sulphate of potass).
"The Art of Perfumery" by G. W. Septimus Piesse
The sulphate is the cheapest and handiest.
"St. Nicholas Magazine for Boys and Girls, Vol. 5, October 1878, No. 12" by Various
Mix two ounces of rose-water with one dram of sulphate of zinc.
"Our Deportment" by John H. Young
We may accomplish this in several different ways, relying on certain methods of decomposing that sulphate of copper.
"The Chemistry of Hat Manufacturing" by Watson Smith
The sulphate of copper occurred in solution, and the copper could be precipitated from it by plunging an iron bar into it.
"Old-Time Makers of Medicine" by James J. Walsh
From the copper we got a liquid, which I asked you to save, and that is vitriol, or sulphate of copper.
"The Wonder Island Boys: Exploring the Island" by Roger Thompson Finlay
This form of lime is known to the chemists as sulphate of lime.
"Agriculture for Beginners" by Charles William Burkett
The resulting compound contains zinc, sulphur, and oxygen, and is known as zinc sulphate.
"An Elementary Study of Chemistry" by William McPherson
In some countries a small amount of copper sulphate is tolerated, while in others it is prohibited.
"Human Foods and Their Nutritive Value" by Harry Snyder
The principal ore of silver is the sulphate, although native silver is also freely encountered in some districts.
"Mexico" by Charles Reginald Enock
Is this substance formed naturally, or is it the result of using poor zinc or sulphate of copper?
"Scientific American, Volume XLIII., No. 25, December 18, 1880" by Various
Glycerine is a good tempering substance, and to this may be added a small amount of sulphate of potash.
"Practical Mechanics for Boys" by J. S. Zerbe
The soda process is used for waters containing sulphates of lime and magnesia.
"Steam, Its Generation and Use" by Babcock & Wilcox Co.
The antidote in cases of carbolic acid poisoning is any soluble sulphate.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 3" by Various
The English system consists more in the use of extended and successive reservoirs or beds of sand alone, or aided by the use of the sulphate.
"Inventions in the Century" by William Henry Doolittle
And it appears from the blue tinge given to the fluid by the sulphat of copper, that ammonia or some of its combinations was contained.
"Observations on Madness and Melancholy" by John Haslam
Sulphate of copper, both chrystallized and in solution; 4.
"Curiousities of Great Britain: England and Wales Delineated Vol. 1" by Thomas Dugdale
When this disease appears, wash the sores with a solution of copper sulphate or a solution of peroxide of hydrogen and water, equal parts.
"Profitable Squab Breeding" by Carl Dare
For further information on leaching out the sulphates, alum, etc., see note 10, p. 564.
"De Re Metallica" by Georgius Agricola
The two solutions consist of copper sulphate and dilute sulphuric acid, the elements being made of zinc and copper.
"Hawkins Electrical Guide, Number One" by Nehemiah Hawkins
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In poetry:

You acid-blue metallic bird,
You thick bird with a strong crest
Who are you?
Whose boss are you, with all your bully way?
You copper-sulphate blue-bird!
"The Blue Jay" by D H Lawrence

In news:

Magnesium sulphate is a neuroprotective agent that might improve outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage by reducing the occurrence or improving the outcome of delayed cerebral ischaemia.
Our problem is that we are make shampoo or handwashing liquid, in which we use sodium laurayl sulphate (SLS).
1 conclude that intravenous magnesium sulphate infusion does not improve clinical outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage .
The development and approval of the protease inhibitor indinavir sulphate was about the fastest ever for a pharmaceutical, but that speed may be coming back to haunt the drug's maker, Merck.
Ammonium sulphate information products from ICIS.
1 conclude that intravenous magnesium sulphate infusion does not improve clinical outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Magnesium sulphate is a neuroprotective agent that might improve outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage by reducing the occurrence or improving the outcome of delayed cerebral ischaemia.
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In science:

In the visible region of the optical spectrum volume disordered media, e.g. compacted powdered barium sulphate, and freshly smoked magnesium oxide are used as Lambertian diffusers.
Design of one-dimensional Lambertian diffusers of light
The bare (or structural) surface charge of most polyions results from the dissociation of functional groups like sulphate or carboxylic groups, the number of which may be measured by titration .
Effective interactions between electric double-layers
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