# subtraction

## Definitions

• WordNet 3.6
• n subtraction the act of subtracting (removing a part from the whole) "he complained about the subtraction of money from their paychecks"
• n subtraction an arithmetic operation in which the difference between two numbers is calculated "the subtraction of three from four leaves one","four minus three equals one"
• ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
• Interesting fact: Ivory soap slogan "99-44/100% Pure" was cleverly invented by Harley Proctor who with the help of chemists determined that Ivory soap was only 56/100 pure. Proctor simply subtracted 56 from 100 and came up with "99-44/100% Pure"
• Subtraction The act or operation of subtracting or taking away a part.
• subtraction (Arith) the addition, subtraction, etc., of compound numbers.
• Subtraction (Math) The taking of a lesser number or quantity from a greater of the same kind or denomination; an operation for finding the difference between two numbers or quantities.
• Subtraction (Law) The withdrawing or withholding from a person of some right to which he is entitled by law.
• ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
• Interesting fact: Except for 2 and 3, every prime number will eventually become divisible by 6 if you either add or subtract 1 from the number. For example, the number 17, plus 1, is divisible by 6. The number 19, minus 1, is also divisible by 6
• n subtraction The act or operation of subtracting, or taking a part from a whole.
• n subtraction Specifically, in arithmetic and algebra, the taking of one number or quantity from another; the operation of finding the difference between two numbers.
• n subtraction In law, a withdrawing or neglecting, as when a person who owes any suit, duty, custom, or service to another withdraws it or neglects to perform it.
• n subtraction Detraction.
• ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
• Interesting fact: If you take any number, double it, add 10, divide by 2, and subtract your original number, the answer will always be 5.
• Subtraction the act or operation of subtracting: the taking a less number or quantity from a greater
• ***

## Quotations

• John Bentley
“What is high finance? It?s knowing the difference between one and ten, multiplying, subtracting and adding. You just add noughts. It?s no more than that.”
• Thomas Brackett Reed
“They never open their mouths without subtracting from the sum of human knowledge.”
• Benjamin Franklin
“Your net worth to the world is usually determined by what remains after your bad habits are subtracted from your good ones.”
• Alexander Solzhenitsyn
“Everything you add to the truth subtracts from the truth.”

## Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. subtractio, a drawing back. See Subtract, and cf. Substraction
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. sub, under, trahĕre, tractum, to draw away.

## Usage

### In literature:

Simply because they will not stop to use what little addition and subtraction they possess.
"The Young Man's Guide" by William A. Alcott
He subtracts a commission of five per cent., and thus makes a handsome profit when business is at all brisk.
"Danger! A True History of a Great City's Wiles and Temptations" by William Howe
The sum of \$11,000 has been subtracted in twenty-four hours from the same paper.
"Behind the Scenes" by Elizabeth Keckley
Reasoning is the reckoning, the addition and subtraction of the sequences of words, the sum being the conclusion.
"The World's Greatest Books--Volume 14--Philosophy and Economics" by Various
If each day what is wanting is added and what is excessive subtracted, the health would be kept in perfect equilibrium.
"Bouvard and Pécuchet" by Gustave Flaubert
If we subtract five from ten, how many have we left?
"Frank Merriwell's Son" by Burt L. Standish
The four principal rules of arithmetic are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
"A Week of Instruction and Amusement," by Mrs. Harley
Then I do various sums in subtraction and addition.
"The Immortal" by Alphonse Daudet
We multiply to enlarge, also subtract when we wish a reduction.
"Philosophy of Osteopathy" by Andrew T. Still
New work was then added in the form of division and subtraction.
"Lola" by Henny Kindermann
He did find it, however, and without subtracting from social intercourse.
"My Recollections of Lord Byron" by Teresa Guiccioli
It has been said of Eads that he grappled with great problems in engineering, and solved them as easily as a boy subtracts two from six.
"James B. Eads" by Louis How
It is not what we have, or what we have not, which adds or subtracts from our felicity.
"Olla Podrida" by Frederick Marryat
And here are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
"Yellow-Cap and Other Fairy-Stories For Children" by Julian Hawthorne
She slipped quickly into a robe that, whatever it did for her modesty, subtracted nothing from the view.
"Tangle Hold" by F. L. Wallace
You 'll have to coach me through my declensions and subtractions.
"Tony Butler" by Charles James Lever
Is the medicine prepared by addition or subtraction?
"On the magnet, magnetick bodies also, and on the great magnet the earth" by William Gilbert of Colchester
And, whatever variety men may succeed in getting, we women have to put up with a pretty steady course of subtraction, I notice.
"Rodman the Keeper" by Constance Fenimore Woolson
I subtract 9, and have 3 as a remainder.
"Clever Hans" by Oskar Pfungst
I again subtract fifty thousand for those women who miscarry, or whose children die by accident or disease within the year.
"Ireland in the Days of Dean Swift" by Jonathan Swift and J. Bowles (John Bowles) Daly
***

### In poetry:

Only you and me
multiplied and divided
added and subtracted
remain the same…
"Another Kind of Mathematics" by Nichita Stanescu
We hunt the cause of ruin, add,
Subtract, and put ourselves in pawn;
For all our scratching on the pad,
We cannot trace the error down.
"The Reckoning" by Theodore Roethke
"The result we proceed to divide, as you see,
By Nine Hundred and Ninety Two:
Then subtract Seventeen, and the answer must be
Exactly and perfectly true.
"The Hunting Of The Snark " by Lewis Carroll
The most which your bounty from you can subtract
Is an apple, a sweetmeat, a toy;
For so easy a virtue, so trifling an act,
You are paid with an innocent joy.
"Charity" by Charles Lamb
Freeman! thy neighbour also has liberties;
This may subtract his rights from thy heritage,--
But Freedom without moderations
Were but the licence of pirate nations.
"Freedom (In Alcaics.)" by Martin Farquhar Tupper
What though the moon on Trevi's fount,
Whilst we together drink, doth shine,
Can it the rural miles remount,
Or I subtract from mine?
Whilst Time hath scarce begun to count
The pleasant paths of thine.
"Fontana Di Trevi" by Alfred Austin

### In news:

This can be accomplished by dividing the raw output of the room being tested by the input, or equivalently subtracting their decibel levels.
Trimble's laser device means measurements to be quickly added, subtracted.
The two flowmeters have identical ranges, and their signals are subtracted.
The chart shows private employment for Alabama and South Carolina by subtracting total government jobs from total jobs.
Subtracting on a Measuring Tape.
In addressing the weakest part of their 2012 club, the bullpen, the Brewers have engaged primarily this off-season in addition by subtraction.
Additive manufacturing can complement your subtractive manufacturing processes, establishing you as modern mold shop.
If you got an economic stimulus check last year, you might need to subtract that rebate from one portion of your Oregon tax form.
Climate scientists have to subtract this so-called urban heat island effec t from their calculations if they want to get a true picture of how greenhouse gas emissions are warming the planet.
Talking to reporters after today's news Super Bowl XLV planning news conference in Dallas, Smith questioned the whole "addition by subtraction" theory as it relates to T.O.
10 am to 6 pm Wednesday (subtracts two hours.
The Laws of Subtraction' and ' Admired .
Ferrari adds F-duct, subtracts bar code for this weekend.
In gross terms it actually subtracted 67,000 government jobs so the rebalancing of the American economy away from government employment and toward the private sector has actually gone somewhat further than we realized.
He Adds And Subtracts Light For Added Dimension.
***

### In science:

In this section we give the additional subtraction terms, which extend the dipole subtraction method to random polarisations of the external partons.
Random polarisations of the dipoles
These additional subtraction terms integrate to zero and modify only the unintegrated subtraction term.
Random polarisations of the dipoles
They can be used on top of any subtraction scheme, which provides local subtraction terms for the spin-summed amplitude squared.
Random polarisations of the dipoles
In the ﬁrst column. A1(1) Subtraction games with ﬁnite subtraction sets are known to have periodic nimsequences.
The Period of the subtraction games
But irrespective of these special choices, for each two bzf an addition and a subtraction can be deﬁned by adding, respectively by subtracting their components.
A new Approach to the N-particle Problem in QM
Since the concept of image subtraction was initially proposed [186] and demonstrated on the sky [187], the major improvement brought to the technique consists in ﬁtting the convolution kernel for PSF homogenization [ 188], by explicitly minimizing the subtraction image.
The expansion of the universe observed with supernovae
For photometry, this is addressed by subtraction (or some equivalent technique, see §7.4), but for slit spectroscopy, subtracting a supernova-free observed galaxy spectrum is not practical.
The expansion of the universe observed with supernovae
The sky difference map is generated by performing a pixel-by-pixel subtraction between the warped and the reference image and it is this which is subtracted from the original image.
Large-Scale Image Processing with the ROTSE Pipeline for Follow-Up of Gravitational Wave Events
The bottom left plot shows the ﬁrst subtracted image (the ﬁrst coadded image minus the reference), the bottom middle shows the second subtracted image.
Large-Scale Image Processing with the ROTSE Pipeline for Follow-Up of Gravitational Wave Events
As described in Section 4.4, the pipeline generates two lightcurves for each candidate, one with background subtracted, and one without the background subtracted.
Large-Scale Image Processing with the ROTSE Pipeline for Follow-Up of Gravitational Wave Events
During this part of the analysis we carefully examined all the subtracted images to look for signs that any of the ob jects were extended (i.e., whether ﬂux was left behind after a point source was subtracted), and for additional ob jects that might have been missed in previous rounds.
HST/ACS Imaging of Omega Centauri: Optical Counterparts of Chandra X-Ray Sources
We know that with a regularization scale of µ = 630, the subtraction constant have a natural size of -2 for an s-wave, but as shown in Ref. their ﬁt gives subtraction constants for the d-wave larger than in the case of s-wave amplitudes.
A case in favor of the \$N^*(1700)(3/2^-)\$
Additionally, residual baseline subtraction was performed by subtracting the median of the time-lines for each bolometer over the entire observation (Pohlen et al. 2010).
A multi-wavelength study of the Magellanic-type galaxy NGC 4449. I. Modelling the spectral energy distribution, the ionisation structure and the star formation history
After dark subtraction and ﬂat-ﬁelding, off-source images were subtracted from on-source data to remove sky emission.
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Photodissociation Regions: The Orion Bar and Orion S
For example, the deconvoluted forward-backward asymmetry includes the Z -boson exchange only (i.e. after subtraction of the γ and γZ contributions) and also ﬁnal-state QED and eventually QCD corrections are subtracted from the experimental data.
Precision Physics at LEP
***