substitution

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n substitution the act of putting one thing or person in the place of another: "he sent Smith in for Jones but the substitution came too late to help"
    • n substitution an event in which one thing is substituted for another "the replacement of lost blood by a transfusion of donor blood"
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The liquid inside young coconuts can be used as substitute for blood plasma
    • Substitution The act of substituting or putting one person or thing in the place of another; as, the substitution of an agent, attorney, or representative to act for one in his absense; the substitution of bank notes for gold and silver as a circulating medium.
    • Substitution (Chem) The act or process of substituting an atom or radical for another atom or radical; metathesis; also, the state of being so substituted. See Metathesis.
    • Substitution (Civil Law) The designation of a person in a will to take a devise or legacy, either on failure of a former devisee or legatee by incapacity or unwillingness to accept, or after him.
    • Substitution (Theol) The doctrine that Christ suffered vicariously, being substituted for the sinner, and that his sufferings were expiatory.
    • Substitution The office or authority of one acting for another; delegated authority.
    • Substitution The state of being substituted for another.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Dandelion root can be roasted and ground as a coffee substitute
    • n substitution The act of substituting, or putting (one person or thing) in the place of another; also, the state or fact of being substituted.
    • n substitution The office of a substitute: delegated authority.
    • n substitution In grammar, the use of one word for another; syllepsis.
    • n substitution In Roman law, the effect of appointing a person to be heir, in case the heir first nominated would not or could not be heir. This was called vulgar substitution. Pupilary substitution existed where, after instituting his child as heir, the testator directed that, if after the child should have become heir it should die before attaining puberty, another be substituted in its place. This was originally allowed only for children under age in the power of the testator, but was afterward extended to children who for any reason could not make a valid will.
    • n substitution In French law, a disposition of property whereby the person receiving it, who is called the institute (le grévé), is charged either at his death or at some other time to deliver it over to another person called the substitute (l'appelé).
    • n substitution In chem., the replacing of one or more elements or radicals in a compound by other elements or radicals. Thus, by bringing water and potassium together, potassium (K) is substituted for a hydrogen atom in water (H2O), yielding KOH, or caustic potash. By further action the other hydrogen atom may be replaced, yielding potassium oxid (K2O). Substitution is the principal method employed in examining the chemical structure of organic bodie's. Also called metalepsy.
    • n substitution In algebra: The act of replacing a quantity by another equal to it; also, in the language of some algebraists, the replacement of a set of variables by another set connected with the first by a system of equations equal in number to the number of variables in each set. See transformation (which is the better term).
    • n substitution The operation of changing the order of a finite number of objects, generally letters, that are in a row, the change following a rule according to which the object in each place is earned to some definite place in the row, this operation being regarded as itself a subject of algebraical operations. For example, supposing we were to start with the row a, b, c, d, e, a substitution might consist in carrying us to the row b, c, a, e, d. Denoting this substitution by S, the repetition of it, which would be denoted by S, would carry us to c, a, b, d, e. If T denote the substitution of e, d, c, b, a for a, b, c, d, e, then TS would convert the last row into d, e, a, c, b, while ST would convert it into d, c, e, a, b. One way of denoting a substitution to which the terminology of the theory refers is to write a row upon which the substitution could operate, with the resulting row above it. These two rows are called the terms of the substitution, the upper one the numerator, the lower the denominator of the substitution. The objects constituting the rows are called the letters of the substitution.
    • n substitution A linear transformation.
    • n substitution In biology: The assumption by one organ of a function which was at one time performed by another organ. Thus the swim-bladder in fishes shows “that an organ originally constructed for one purpose, namely, notation, may be converted into one for a wholly different purpose, namely respiration.”
    • n substitution The acquisition by an organ of a secondary function which, at first performed incidentally, may gradually become the chief function if the primary function becomes useless or is performed by another organ. Thus “the little folds of skin which originally served as ovigerous frena, but which, like-wise, very slightly aided the act of respiration, have been gradually converted by natural selection into branchiæ, simply through an increase in their size and the obliteration of their adhesive glands.”
    • n substitution In Scots law, a technical enumeration of a series of heirs.
    • n substitution In civil law, the appointment, in a will, of a successor to a devisee or legatee; subrogation.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Acorns were used as a coffee substitute during the American Civil War
    • n Substitution act of substituting or putting in place of another: : :
    • n Substitution (Shak.) the office of a substitute: the use of one word for another, syllepsis
    • n Substitution (alg.) the replacing one quantity by another which is equal to it but differently expressed
    • n Substitution (chem.) the replacement of one or more equivalents of a body by a like number of equivalents of another
    • ***

Quotations

  • Randall Jacobs
    Randall Jacobs
    “There is no substitute for accurate knowledge. Know yourself, know your business, know your men.”
  • St. Augustine
    St.%20Augustine
    “Charity is no substitute for justice withheld.”
  • Rush Limbaugh
    Rush Limbaugh
    “Compassion is no substitute for justice.”
  • Bear Bryant
    Bear Bryant
    “There's no substitute for guts.”
  • Russell Lynes
    Russell Lynes
    “Cynicism is the intellectual cripple's substitute for intelligence.”
  • Henri Lefebvre
    Henri Lefebvre
    “In this loveless everyday life eroticism is a substitute for love.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. substitutio,: cf. F. substitution,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. substituĕre, -ūtumsub, under, statuĕre, to set.

Usage

In literature:

She also picks out three or four additional names to be substituted for those who regret.
"Etiquette" by Emily Post
He relied upon imagination and intuition as substitutes for precise knowledge and technical skill.
"The Inside Story Of The Peace Conference" by Emile Joseph Dillon
It is only by substituting a pleasant kind of food, that many will be induced even to attempt to change.
"Cassell's Vegetarian Cookery" by A. G. Payne
There is a meaning in all these cases when different persons are amalgamated into one substitute.
"Dream Psychology" by Sigmund Freud
In a few cases, as previously stated, gold or platinum has been substituted for the carbon electrodes in transmitters.
"Cyclopedia of Telephony & Telegraphy Vol. 1" by Kempster Miller
Each magazine carries 20 rounds and the empty magazine can be detached and another substituted by pressing a button.
"How To Write Special Feature Articles" by Willard Grosvenor Bleyer
Substitution cannot take place in the moral world.
"Edward Caldwell Moore" by Edward Moore
For this rough teacher, I should like, if possible, to substitute a more gentle one.
"Essays on Political Economy" by Frederic Bastiat
We have already alluded to the impossibility of substituting one means of defence for another.
"Elements of Military Art and Science" by Henry Wager Halleck
Do not be content to use Rape, or any other substitute, but sow the genuine article.
"The Culture of Vegetables and Flowers From Seeds and Roots, 16th Edition" by Sutton and Sons
Is it in the nature of a substitute for the Bible?
"The Way of Salvation in the Lutheran Church" by G. H. Gerberding
Reread, substituting low pitch for high, and vice versa.
"The Art of Public Speaking" by Dale Carnagey (AKA Dale Carnegie) and J. Berg Esenwein
By whom was the legion substituted for the phalanx?
"Pinnock's Improved Edition of Dr. Goldsmith's History of Rome" by Oliver Goldsmith
The Spartan and other ancient communities might disregard domestic ties, because they had the substitution of country, which we cannot have.
"The Prose Works of William Wordsworth" by William Wordsworth
BREAD: A foodstuff which the rich occasionally give to the poor as a substitute for cake.
"The Roycroft Dictionary" by Elbert Hubbard
Ned saw the game from the substitutes' bench, and Laurie from the stand.
"The Turner Twins" by Ralph Henry Barbour
Mexican leaf is used as a substitute for Cuban, to which it is inferior.
"Tobacco Leaves" by W. A. Brennan
And in neither is this substitution of alien traits imitative, merely.
"Feminism and Sex-Extinction" by Arabella Kenealy
If the butternut cannot be obtained, substitute a dose of physic.
"The American Reformed Cattle Doctor" by George Dadd
Things have come to such a pass that even sickly persons often use them as substitutes for nourishing food!
"A Guide to Health" by Mahatma Gandhi
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In poetry:

We look in vain for a substitute
To take the place of success;
A proxy saps its vital cords,
It dies of paralysis.
"Success" by Jared Barhite
"The only substitute for me
Was ever found, is called a pen:
The frequent use of that will be
The way to make me come again."
"Memory" by Charles Lamb
Then black men went as substitutes
While timid white men staid at home;
Thus swelled the ranks of all recruits,
Till bloody treason met its doom.
"The Triumph Of Liberty" by James Madison Bell
Sweet season ! that wings ev'ry moment with joy,
And gilds ev'ry cheek with a smile,
That chases the dark-brooding clouds from the sky,
And substitutes brightness the while.
"Summer" by Laura Sophia Temple
"But then," they said, "it's most unconstitutional, you know.
Besides, we have no precedent; therefore you have no show."
But Bill dispensed with precedent and substituted sense --
Whereat the anger of the tribal Tories was immense.
"In The First Elective Ministry" by C J Dennis
At one time the tillers of the soil cursed the traveller who brought the
potato, the substitute for bread, the poor man's daily food…. They shook
the precious gift out of his outstretched hands, flung it in the mud,
trampled it underfoot.
"'Thou shalt Hear The Fool's Judgment....'--_Pushkin_" by Ivan Turgenev

In news:

David B Albo , R-Fairfax, holds up the substitute as he speaks for passage of SB484, the "ultrasound before abortion" bill.
The more traditional Thanksgiving apple can be substituted for the pears in this salad.
Obama's beliefs substitute the founders' values with his own leftist brand.
Teenage substitute Tony Watt scores Celtic's second goal as Barcelona's Javier Mascherano watches in Glasgow.
Sustainability and seafood substitution are two hot topics at this year's International Boston Seafood Show.
Nampa school district's $2.8-million bookkeeping error leaves substitute teachers jobless and "disgusted".
A doctorate student at the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, Haiyan Cheng was substitute teaching when she heard shots nearby.
Substituting regular penne pasta with whole wheat pasta is a good way to increase fiber.
We used whole-wheat pastry flour for added fiber and substituted extra-virgin olive oil for margarine or butter.
It all started before Thanksgiving, when principals began to notice something that hit hard on the staff and substitute teachers.
A former substitute teacher has been acquitted of sex charges involving five young girls.
Creative management of the projected image can allow it to substitute for constructed sets, Buhl notes.
Alternative medicine should be add-on , not substitute.
Morel mushrooms (substitute any mushroom), washed.
How should physicians respond to patients who want to substitute alternative therapies for traditional treatment.
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In science:

To the function φ(u) belongs a definite group of linear substitutions u′ = αu + β of the argument u, consisting of all those substitutions of the given form for which φ(u′)=φ(u).
On Those Analytic Functions of One Variable which possess an Algebraic Addition Theorem
DOP1 estimates the probability of substituting a subtree ti on a specific node as the probability of selecting ti among all subtrees in the corpus that could be substituted on that node.
Two Questions about Data-Oriented Parsing
With n jets, one has to substitute one of the n operators KR which generate the jets by Kav , take a sum of all such substitutions, and divide by n.
Correlations between and jet multiplicities from the BFKL chain
We will say that word W is obtained from a word U by a non-cancelling substitution Φ, if we substitute every letter of U such that there is no cancellations between Φ(yi ) and Φ(yj ) whenever yiyj is a subword of U .
Groups, periodic planes and hyperbolic buildings
However, our calculations don’t exclude the possibility of F substitution: F substitutional doping might also occur along with F adsorption, especially in the B rich environment.
Are fluorinated BN nanotubes n-type semiconductors?
B sites, (b) two substitutional F atoms, and (c) one F atom adsorbed on one surrounding B atoms around the substituted N site.
Are fluorinated BN nanotubes n-type semiconductors?
As a result of such a substitution the term λ R g (t)D2 dt ≡ 0 is substituted by a non-zero quantity.
Dephasing of Josephson qubits close to optimal points
Let A(t) be the integer matrix obtained from A by this substitution along with the substitution of the given ai,j .
Nonlinear Bipartite Matching
Obviously, it is always the case that if there exists a substitution s such that s(ϕ) ∈ L, then there exists a ground substitution s′ with s′ (ϕ) ∈ L.
Undecidability of the unification and admissibility problems for modal and description logics
This is defined by writing f in terms of the power symmetric functions and then substituting pm [A] for pm (x), where pm [A] is the result of substituting a → am for every indeterminate a.
The Combinatorics of the Garsia-Haiman Modules for Hook Shapes
The set of n-ary substitutions is closed with respect to the superposition of n such substitutions.
Remarks to Glazek's results on n-ary groups
The frequency of each prototile in a primitive substitution tiling can be obtained from the substitution matrix Mσ .
About Substitution Tilings with Statistical Circular Symmetry
It is a well-known fact that the hull of a primitive substitution tiling with substitution σ is the family Xσ of all substitution tilings (compare Def. 1.1).
About Substitution Tilings with Statistical Circular Symmetry
Then the third substitution is simply the second substitution, after representing β in a different way.
Peak reduction and finite presentations for automorphism groups of right-angled Artin groups
By making the substitution σ = −s, τ = −t in the definition of B (F, G) we get B (F, G) = Z Zτ <σ The integral in the line above can be written as (−1)n Z Zτ <σ by making the substitution x → −x and setting F ′ (t, x, v) = F (−t, −x, v), G′ (t, x, v) = G(−t, −x, v).
Strichartz estimates for the kinetic transport equation
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