strain

Definitions

  • 7 Spliced for cross strain
    7 Spliced for cross strain
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v strain cause to be tense and uneasy or nervous or anxious "he got a phone call from his lawyer that tensed him up"
    • v strain alter the shape of (something) by stress "His body was deformed by leprosy"
    • v strain to exert much effort or energy "straining our ears to hear"
    • v strain use to the utmost; exert vigorously or to full capacity "He really extended himself when he climbed Kilimanjaro","Don't strain your mind too much"
    • v strain rub through a strainer or process in an electric blender "puree the vegetables for the baby"
    • v strain remove by passing through a filter "filter out the impurities"
    • v strain separate by passing through a sieve or other straining device to separate out coarser elements "sift the flour"
    • v strain become stretched or tense or taut "the bodybuilder's neck muscles tensed"," "the rope strained when the weight was attached"
    • v strain test the limits of "You are trying my patience!"
    • n strain the act of singing "with a shout and a song they marched up to the gates"
    • n strain an intense or violent exertion
    • n strain an effortful attempt to attain a goal
    • n strain the general meaning or substance of an utterance "although I disagreed with him I could follow the tenor of his argument"
    • n strain a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence "she was humming an air from Beethoven"
    • n strain a special variety of domesticated animals within a species "he experimented on a particular breed of white rats","he created a new strain of sheep"
    • n strain (biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups "a new strain of microorganisms"
    • n strain (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces
    • n strain injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse); results in swelling and pain
    • n strain (psychology) nervousness resulting from mental stress "his responsibilities were a constant strain","the mental strain of staying alert hour after hour was too much for him"
    • n strain difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension "she endured the stresses and strains of life","he presided over the economy during the period of the greatest stress and danger"- R.J.Samuelson"
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: There are more than one form of the Ebola virus. Different strains are named after the area they were discovered in.
    • Strain A change of form or dimensions of a solid or liquid mass, produced by a stress.
    • Strain (Hort) A cultural subvariety that is only slightly differentiated.
    • Strain (Mus) A portion of music divided off by a double bar; a complete musical period or sentence; a movement, or any rounded subdivision of a movement. "Their heavenly harps a lower strain began."
    • Strain A violent effort; an excessive and hurtful exertion or tension, as of the muscles; as, he lifted the weight with a strain; the strain upon a ship's rigging in a gale; also, the hurt or injury resulting; a sprain.
    • Strain Any sustained note or movement; a song; a distinct portion of an ode or other poem; also, the pervading note, or burden, of a song, poem, oration, book, etc.; theme; motive; manner; style; also, a course of action or conduct; as, he spoke in a noble strain; there was a strain of woe in his story; a strain of trickery appears in his career. "A strain of gallantry.""Such take too high a strain at first.""The genius and strain of the book of Proverbs.""It [Pilgrim's Progress] seems a novelty, and yet contains
      Nothing but sound and honest gospel strains ."
    • Strain Hereditary character, quality, or disposition. "Intemperance and lust breed diseases, which, propogated, spoil the strain of nation."
    • Strain Race; stock; generation; descent; family. "He is of a noble strain .""With animals and plants a cross between different varieties, or between individuals of the same variety but of another strain , gives vigor and fertility to the offspring."
    • Strain Rank; a sort. "The common strain ."
    • Strain The act of straining, or the state of being strained.
    • Strain (Mech) To act upon, in any way, so as to cause change of form or volume, as forces on a beam to bend it.
    • Strain To draw with force; to extend with great effort; to stretch; as, to strain a rope; to strain the shrouds of a ship; to strain the cords of a musical instrument. "To strain his fetters with a stricter care."
    • Strain To exert to the utmost; to ply vigorously. "He sweats, Strains his young nerves.""They strain their warbling throats
      To welcome in the spring."
    • Strain To injure by drawing, stretching, or the exertion of force; as, the gale strained the timbers of the ship.
    • Strain To injure in the muscles or joints by causing to make too strong an effort; to harm by overexertion; to sprain; as, to strain a horse by overloading; to strain the wrist; to strain a muscle. "Prudes decayed about may track, Strain their necks with looking back."
    • Strain To make uneasy or unnatural; to produce with apparent effort; to force; to constrain. "He talks and plays with Fatima, but his mirth
      Is forced and strained ."
      "The quality of mercy is not strained ."
    • Strain To make violent efforts. "Straining with too weak a wing.""To build his fortune I will strain a little."
    • Strain To percolate; to be filtered; as, water straining through a sandy soil.
    • Strain To press, or cause to pass, through a strainer, as through a screen, a cloth, or some porous substance; to purify, or separate from extraneous or solid matter, by filtration; to filter; as, to strain milk through cloth.
    • Strain To squeeze; to press closely. "Evander with a close embrace Strained his departing friend."
    • Strain To stretch beyond its proper limit; to do violence to, in the matter of intent or meaning; as, to strain the law in order to convict an accused person. "There can be no other meaning in this expression, however some may pretend to strain it."
    • Strain To urge with importunity; to press; as, to strain a petition or invitation. "Note, if your lady strain his entertainment."
    • Strain Turn; tendency; inborn disposition. Cf. 1st Strain. "Because heretics have a strain of madness, he applied her with some corporal chastisements."
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Soy milk, the liquid left after beans have been crushed in hot water and strained, is a favorite beverage in the East. In Hong Kong, soy milk is as popular as Coca-Cola is in the U.S.
    • strain To draw out; stretch; extend, especially with effort or care.
    • strain To draw tight; tighten; make taut.
    • strain To confine; restrain; imprison.
    • strain To stretch to the utmost tension; put to the stretch; exert: as, to strain every nerve to accomplish something.
    • strain To stretch beyond measure; push beyond the proper extent or limit; carry too far.
    • strain To impair, weaken, or injure by stretching or overtasking; harm by subjection to too great stress or exertion; hence, to sprain.
    • strain To force; constrain.
    • strain To urge; press.
    • strain To press; squeeze; hence, to hug; embrace.
    • strain To press through a filter or colander; separate extraneous or coarser matters from (a liquid) by causing it to pass through a filter or colander; purify from extraneous matter by filtration; filter: as, to strain milk.
    • strain To separate or remove by the use of a filter or colander: with out. See phrase under intransitive verb, below.
    • strain To force out by straining.
    • strain To deform, as a solid body or structure.
    • strain = Syn. 10. Bolt, Screen, etc. See sift.
    • strain To exert one's self; make violent efforts; strive.
    • strain To urge; press.
    • strain To stretch strugglingly; stretch with effort.
    • strain To undergo distortions under force, as a ship in a high sea.
    • strain To drip; ooze; filter; drain; flow; issue: as, water straining through sand becomes pure.
    • n strain Stretch; extent; pitch.
    • n strain Stretching or deforming force or pressure; violence.
    • n strain Tense or constrained state or condition; tension; great effort.
    • n strain In mech., a definite change in the shape or size of a solid body setting up an elastic resistance, or stress, or exceeding the limit of elasticity. The deformation of a fluid is not commonly called a strain. The word, which had previously been illdefined, was made a scientific and precise term in this sense by Rankine in 1850. Thomson and Tait, in their “Treatise on Natural Philosophy,” extend the term to deformations of liquid masses, and even of groups of points; and Tait subsequently extends it to any geometrical figure, so that it becomes a synonym of deformation.
    • n strain A stretching of the muscles or tendons, giving rise to subsequent pain and stiffness; sprain; wrench; twist.
    • n strain A permanent deformation or injury of a solid structure.
    • n strain Stretch; flight or burst, as of imagination, eloquence, or song. Specifically— A poem; a song; a lay.
    • n strain Tune; melody.
    • n strain In a stricter sense, in music, a section of a piece which is more or less complete in itself. In written music the strains are often marked by double bars.
    • n strain Tone; key; style or manner of speech or conduct.
    • n strain Mood; disposition.
    • n strain Relatively to another strain, a strain orthogonal to a stress perfectly concurrent to the other strain.
    • n strain Race; stock; generation; descent; hence, family blood; quality or line as regards breeding; breed; a race or breed; a variety, especially an artificial variety, of a domestic animal. Strain indicates the least recognizable variation from a given stock, or the ultimate modification to which an animal has been subjected. But since such variation usually proceeds by insensible degrees, the significance of strain grades into that of breed, race, or variety.
    • n strain Hereditary or natural disposition; turn; tendency; character.
    • n strain Sort; kind; style.
    • n strain Trace; streak.
    • n strain The shoot of a tree.
    • n strain The track of a deer.
    • strain To distrain.
    • strain In photography, said of a lens when an object is brought so near that the image appears distorted.
    • n strain In agriculture and horticulture, a group of cultivated plants derived from a race which does not differ from the original race in visible taxonomic characters, but into which has been bred some intrinsic quality, such as a tendency to yield heavily, or a better adaptability to a certain environment. If a breeder by the careful selection of blue-stem wheat should produce a sort of blue-stem which differs from the original race only in the ability to give greater yields, it would be called a strain of blue-stem.
    • n strain A name given in Ireland to long masses of half-molded peat before the latter is cut up into briquets for drying and subsequent burning. The peat is excavated from the bog, and by a machine is torn, comminuted, kneaded, and pressed, leaving the machine in continuous rods or bars (strains). On drying, the strains shrink to about half their size when wet.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • v.t Strain strān to stretch tight: to draw with force: to exert to the utmost: to injure by overtasking: to make tight: to constrain, make uneasy or unnatural: to press to one's self, to embrace: to pass through a filter
    • v.i Strain to make violent efforts: to filter
    • n Strain the act of straining: a violent effort: an injury inflicted by straining, esp. a wrenching of the muscles: a note, sound, or song, stretch of imagination, &c.: any change of form or bulk of a portion of matter either solid or fluid, the system of forces which sustains the strain being called the stress: mood, disposition
    • n Strain strān race, stock, generation: descent: natural tendency, any admixture or element in one's character
    • ***

Quotations

  • Julia Woodruff
    Julia Woodruff
    “Out of the strain of doing and into the peace of the done.”
  • Elizabeth Stuart Phelps
    Elizabeth Stuart Phelps
    “It is not the straining for great things that is most effective; it is the doing the little things, the common duties, a little better and better.”
  • Henry David Thoreau
    Henry%20David%20Thoreau
    “The fibers of all things have their tension and are strained like the strings of an instrument.”
  • Robert Lynd
    Robert Lynd
    “Friendship will not stand the strain of very much good advice for very long.”
  • George Eliot
    George%20Eliot
    “A difference of taste in jokes is a great strain on the affections.”
  • Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham%20Lincoln
    “With the fearful strain that is on me night and day, if I did not laugh I should die.”

Idioms

Strain every nerve - If you strain every nerve, you make a great effort to achieve something.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OF. estraindre, estreindre, F. étreindre, L. stringere, to draw or bind tight; probably akin to Gr. a halter, that which is squeezwd out, a drop, or perhaps to E. strike,. Cf. Strangle Strike Constrain District Strait (a.) Stress Strict Stringent
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
M. E. streen—A.S. gestréon, gain; confused in M. E. with the related M. E. strend—A.S. strynd, lineage.

Usage

In literature:

If it is to be used as a stock, strain without mashing the beans.
"The Golden Age Cook Book" by Henrietta Latham Dwight
Season with a saltspoonful of salt, a fourth of one of pepper, and strain carefully.
"Choice Cookery" by Catherine Owen
Mix, strain, and when cold make up to four pints with water.
"The Ladies Book of Useful Information" by Anonymous
Strain a point to oblige me!
"Jim Spurling, Fisherman" by Albert Walter Tolman
Obviously he was labouring under a severe strain.
"The Submarine Hunters" by Percy F. Westerman
But the dog and the woman felt, and both strained toward the window.
"Northern Lights" by Gilbert Parker
They rode at a venture, looking about them with strained intentness, for they had left the guiding trail behind them now.
"The Cattle-Baron's Daughter" by Harold Bindloss
Then Seth's straining ears caught the sound of horses galloping.
"The Watchers of the Plains" by Ridgewell Cullum
It's all strain and effort from early sunrise until after dusk at night.
"Hawtrey's Deputy" by Harold Bindloss
The horses, all eagerness to be off, tossed impatient heads, straining impotently at the tightened rein.
"Captain Desmond, V.C." by Maud Diver
When cool, strain the sauce.
"The American Housewife" by Anonymous
Strain the dish water before pouring it down the sink.
"Scouting For Girls, Official Handbook of the Girl Scouts" by Girl Scouts
It was a strain on her, an exhausting wearying strain, always unnatural.
"The Rainbow" by D. H. (David Herbert) Lawrence
His posture was strained, doubtful.
"Valley of Wild Horses" by Zane Grey
Chop two dozen of anchovies, without the bone, add some of their own liquor strained, and sixteen large spoonfuls of water.
"The Cook and Housekeeper's Complete and Universal Dictionary; Including a System of Modern Cookery, in all Its Various Branches," by Mary Eaton
Was the strain equally virile?
"Blake's Burden" by Harold Bindloss
In the dim light there was a strained look on the faces of the players.
"The Plow-Woman" by Eleanor Gates
This sauce may be strained or served without straining.
"Fifty-Two Sunday Dinners" by Elizabeth O. Hiller
With all his soul he strained to catch an opening in the clouds that held the future from his eyes.
"The Vision of Elijah Berl" by Frank Lewis Nason
The ticking of the clock pressed on strained ears like ghastly bell-tolling.
"Langford of the Three Bars" by Kate Boyles
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In poetry:

Hurrah!
And as we've ended feast and strain,
The cup we'll to the bottom drain;
No dregs must there remain!
"Vanitas! Vanitatum Vanitas!" by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Her life was earnest work, not play;
Her tired feet climbed a weary way;
And even through her lightest strain
We heard an undertone of pain.
"The Singer" by John Greenleaf Whittier
And a pale girl sat there chanting
Mournfully to children twain,
Like some sweet house-spirit haunting
Old men's homes with childhood's strain.
"Leawood Hall" by Ernest Jones
Farewell, sweet love! never again
Will thine ear listen to the strain
With which so oft at midnight's hour
I've waked the silence of thy bower.
"The Troubadour. Canto 2" by Letitia Elizabeth Landon
One mournful strain I still might breathe,
But that sad strain is not for thee,
With Hope's fresh buds thy temples wreathe,
Sing thou not yet of Memory.
"Impromptu" by Frances Anne Kemble
Will you gaze after the dead, gaze into the grave?--
Strain your eyes in the darkness, knowing it vain?
Strain your voice in the silence that never gave
To any voice of yours an answer again?
"To Eoghan" by Thomas MacDonagh

In news:

HarperCollins plans to publish a new novel by Michael Crichton , the best-selling author of "Jurassic Park" and "The Andromeda Strain," who died of cancer in November 2008.
Then, strain out the water and transfer the beans to a blender.
As a board member of Community Hospice Care, I am keenly aware of the financial strain that is the daily concern of its dedicated staff.
3.Strain into an ice filled rocks glass.
Why the aches and pains and strained tendons and ruptured ligaments are starting to happen more and more often.
A potential health crisis is looming, as strains of gonorrhea resistant to antibiotics appear in more countries, says the World Health Organization.
Is it headed for U.S. A new "superbug" strain of.
A new strain of gonorrhea is resistant to one of the last known effective treatments.
But now, a "superbug" strain of the STD has been found in Japan and scientists fear it could become a global public health threat.
Gonorrhea strain resists all antibiotics.
Some strains of STD showing signs of becoming resistant to all treatments.
Not since Kurt Cobain have I witness a rock singer courting vocal strain so willingly.
It's encouraging when we have the kind of voter turnout that strains the elections division of the county a little bit.
For the first time, a potentially fatal strain of E. Coli has been traced to Oregon hazelnuts, prompting the industry to take a fresh look at food safety.
Buzz Williams' voice is often reduced to a strained whisper by the end of a game.
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In science:

The shear strain is applied in the x-direction, the strain gradient is in the y -direction, and the xy component of the stress tensor is measured. (c) Number of overlaps per particle Z − Zc vs. φ − φc .
Random Packings of Frictionless Particles
The response is linear for sufficiently small strains.
Random Packings of Frictionless Particles
This is given by the coupling constant γ , defined such that the asymmetry changes from ∆ to ∆ + γ ǫ under the applied shear strain ǫ.
Energy landscape - a key concept for the dynamics of glasses and liquids
Then one returns to an unstrained equilibrium in the strained state.
Energy landscape - a key concept for the dynamics of glasses and liquids
Statistical laws of random strained vortices in turbulence.
Statistics of a vortex filament model
When such a medium is sub jected to uniform stresses at its boundaries, it will undergo a homogeneous deformation with a constant strain.
Nonaffine Correlations in Random Elastic Media
This picture of affine strain is generally valid at length scales large compared to any characteristic inhomogeneities: displacements averaged over a sufficiently large volume are affine (at least in dimensions greater than two).
Nonaffine Correlations in Random Elastic Media
At more microscopic scales, however, individual particles in an elastic medium do not necessarily follow tra jectories defined by uniform strain in response to external stress: they undergo nonaffine rather than affine displacements.
Nonaffine Correlations in Random Elastic Media
The discrete strain variable, vb , is by construction invariant with respect to rigid rotations of the sample, i.e., it is invariant under Rℓi → Uij Rℓj , where Uij is any ℓindependent rotation matrix.
Nonaffine Correlations in Random Elastic Media
Because it depends only on the full nonlinear strain uij (x), the continuum energy H of Eq. (2.15) is invariant with respect to rigid rotations in the target space.
Nonaffine Correlations in Random Elastic Media
When a sample is sub jected to a distortion via stresses at its boundaries, the strains can be expressed in terms of an affine strain and deviations from it.
Nonaffine Correlations in Random Elastic Media
This equation shows that the random part of the elasticmodulus tensor times the affine strain acts as a source that drives nonaffine distortions.
Nonaffine Correlations in Random Elastic Media
Equation (3.28) contains all relevant information about nonaffine correlations to lowest order in the imposed strain.
Nonaffine Correlations in Random Elastic Media
Cauchy strain tensor relative to the original reference state.
Nonaffine Correlations in Random Elastic Media
The nonaffine displacements generated in random elastic media by external strains contain rotational as well as irrotational components as is evident from Fig. (5).
Nonaffine Correlations in Random Elastic Media
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