stimulus

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n stimulus any stimulating information or event; acts to arouse action
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Stimulus A goad; hence, something that rouses the mind or spirits; an incentive; as, the hope of gain is a powerful stimulus to labor and action.
    • Stimulus That which excites or produces a temporary increase of vital action, either in the whole organism or in any of its parts; especially Physiol, any substance or agent capable of evoking the activity of a nerve or irritable muscle, or capable of producing an impression upon a sensory organ or more particularly upon its specific end organ.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n stimulus Literally, a goad.
    • n stimulus In botany, a sting: as, the nettle is furnished with stimuli.
    • n stimulus The point at the end of a crozier, pastoral staff, precentor's staff, or the like. In the staves of ecclesiastical authority the stimulus or point is regarded as the emblem of judgment or punishment.
    • n stimulus Something that excites or rouses the mind or spirits; something that incites to action or exertion; an incitement or incentive.
    • n stimulus In physiology, something which evokes some functional or trophic reaction in the tissues on which it acts.
    • n stimulus In entomology, a stinging-hair.
    • n stimulus The continuation in sense-organ, nerve, and brain of a process of stimulation externally initiated; the physiological excitation which is aroused by the action of an external stimulus.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • Stimulus a goad: anything that rouses the mind, or that excites to action: a stimulant:—pl. Stim′ulī
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Quotations

  • Carl Rogers
    Carl Rogers
    “In a person who is open to experience each stimulus is freely relayed through the nervous system, without being distorted by any process of defensiveness.”
  • Bishop Robert South
    Bishop Robert South
    “Defeat should never be a source of discouragement, but rather a fresh stimulus.”
  • Ovid
    Ovid
    “The love of glory gives an immense stimulus.”
  • Orison Swett Marden
    Orison%20Swett%20Marden
    “There is no stimulus like that which comes from the consciousness of knowing that others believe in us.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L., for stigmulus, akin to L. instigare, to stimulate. See Instigare Stick (v. t.)
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. stimulus (for stigmulus)—Gr. stizein, to prick.

Usage

In literature:

He has the moral stimulus of responsibility.
"The Psychology of Management" by L. M. Gilbreth
Cleghorn made the stimulus occur at the beginning of the relaxation phase.
"Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1" by Various
This was their stimulus, their very inspiration to endure hardship and sacrifice all.
"In the Shadow of Death" by P. H. Kritzinger and R. D. McDonald
But supply a stimulus, raise the standard, and you will find some of these individuals forging up to the next level.
"Craftsmanship in Teaching" by William Chandler Bagley
And if there is ever a time on earth when you do not need the stimulus of tobacco, it is while you are in college.
"The Young Man and the World" by Albert J. Beveridge
It is wrong of me, perhaps, to hint that your zeal requires any stimulus, Mr.
"The Thin Red Line; and Blue Blood" by Arthur Griffiths
We should, under the stimulus of Hunger, seek the food, whether it gave us pleasure or not.
"Practical Essays" by Alexander Bain
This "after sensation" will clearly lead to illusion, in so far as we tend to think of the stimulus as still at work.
"Illusions" by James Sully
But she went on as if she were conscious of a stimulus.
"Hilda" by Sarah Jeanette Duncan
If the same stimulus be often repeated, the synapses between groups of cells may become permanent.
"Scientific American Supplement, No. 1178, June 25, 1898" by Various
All variations in vision as far as color and brightness are concerned are due to variations in the stimulus.
"The Science of Human Nature" by William Henry Pyle
But what do we mean by a stimulus?
"Applied Psychology for Nurses" by Mary F. Porter
The ever-flowing ridicule from the audience was anything but a stimulus.
"The Young Pitcher" by Zane Grey
Under the stimulus of a particularly good gift cigar the man behind the register grew more confidential.
"Branded" by Francis Lynde
They are the reactions to the same stimulus of two fundamentally different types of mind.
"Musical Portraits" by Paul Rosenfeld
Dr. Gillette's statistics, showing the appalling need, should prove a stimulus to eugenic effort.
"Applied Eugenics" by Paul Popenoe and Roswell Hill Johnson
A theatre set up by the French was another source of pleasure and stimulus.
"The Youth of Goethe" by Peter Hume Brown
Because our stimulus had been greater, was our nourishment to be less?
"Recreations of Christopher North, Volume 2" by John Wilson
Pains from Defect and from Excess of Stimulus 71.
"The Temple of Nature; or, the Origin of Society" by Erasmus Darwin
Pure moral stimulus would take the place of what is low, sensual, and selfish.
"Select Temperance Tracts" by American Tract Society
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In poetry:

And now, as nears the dreaded hour.
Her goal the nearer grows,
And hope, the stimulus of life,
Her weary bosom glows.
"A Ballad Of 1812" by Sarah Anne Curzon
Alas! no stimulus avails!
Each former potent influence fails:
No longer e'en a sigh can part
From that oppress'd and wearied heart.
"The Lay Of Marie - Canto Fourth" by Matilda Betham
Always in the middle of a kiss
Came the profane stimulus to cough;
Always from teh pulpit during service
Leaned the devil prompting you to laugh.
"Dirge For A Joker" by Sylvia Plath

In news:

The Washington Post reports that the trade-war issue, which flared up briefly after "Buy American" clauses made it into the stimulus bill, is heating up below the surface.
How effective will the $787 billion stimulus plan be in reviving the economy.
Russ Feingold backed ObamaCare and the stimulus.
Stimulus measures boosted fund returns in 3Q.
Firm's contract kerfuffle highlights stimulus doubts.
Obama's support for a government stimulus and expenditures to invest are traditional Keynesian .
Tax cuts are a kind of government-created economic stimulus, like building highways or buying aircraft carriers.
Newly discovered letters from two great economists shed light on today's discussion of economic 'stimulus.'.
Three Republicans voted for stimulus.
The anniversary of the $787 billion economic stimulus act came and went last week with unemployment still holding stubbornly close to 10 percent.
Data logging tools help high-school students investigate school energy use, build case for energy-efficiency stimulus funds.
Five myths about the stimulus.
House Republicans charge that states are using $87 billion in stimulus Medicaid money for non-health care purposes.
Earlier this summer members of Congress became aware of questionable purchases of electronic equipment from the Mountain State's "stimulus" allocation.
That's why the Governor of New York decided to use federal stimulus funds for a back-to-school program.
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In science:

The assumption of dense tuning functions is clearly very strong as the number of neurons necessary to cover an n-dimensional stimulus space grows exponentially with n.
Dynamic State Estimation Based on Poisson Spike Trains: Towards a Theory of Optimal Encoding
Excitable systems allow for the regeneration of waves propagating through them, and may thus respond vigorously to weak stimulus.
Interplay between Network Topology and Dynamics in Neural Systems
This is because the system is then easily destabilized by the stimulus while being able to retrieve a pattern with accuracy.
Interplay between Network Topology and Dynamics in Neural Systems
Inset shows sections of typical time series of mν for ∆ = 10 (above) and γ = 4 (below); the corresponding stimulus for pattern ν is shown underneath.
Interplay between Network Topology and Dynamics in Neural Systems
This mechanism for dynamically storing information will work for values of parameters such that the system is sensitive to the stimulus, acquiring the desired configuration, yet also able to retain it for some interval of time thereafter.
Interplay between Network Topology and Dynamics in Neural Systems
If the intensity of the stimulus, δ , is very large, then the system will always adopt the right pattern perfectly and η will only depend on how well it can then retain it.
Interplay between Network Topology and Dynamics in Neural Systems
It is interesting that even in this scenario, where the boxes of neurons which are to receive the same stimulus are chosen at random with no consideration for the underlying topology, these boxes need not have very many neurons for λ to be quite low (as long as the degree distribution is not too heterogeneous).
Interplay between Network Topology and Dynamics in Neural Systems
Rather, it has acted as a stimulus to the field, proving the existence of a powerful new type of computing made possible by controlled quantum evolution, and exhibiting some of the new methods.
Quantum Computing
The result was a strong research stimulus on parallel I/O topics.
Cluster Computing White Paper
The theorem, called in the book of Robinson “probably the most famous of all embedding theorems”, was a stimulus for further research on embeddings into 2-generated groups and related problems.
Subnormal embedding theorems for groups
Figure 3: The distribution P (δγ ), considering all δγij for each cell pair i and j and for each stimulus s.
Redundancy and synergy arising from correlations in large ensembles
Time window starts 5ms after the stimulus onset.
Redundancy and synergy arising from correlations in large ensembles
However in the last few years the situation has changed. A stimulus came from the observation of diffractive processes at HERA and the Tevatron, characterised by the presence of rapidity gaps.
Summary Talk: First Workshop on Forward Physics and Luminosity Determination at the LHC
Therefore the question arises as to how a transient stimulus can cause persistent changes in neural activity.
A simple mechanism for balancing at the border of instability with applications to persistent neural activity
Fig. 3 shows that, in the absence of the stimulus u(t), this type of adaptation law is indeed able to bring and keep the bifurcation parameter close to its critical value, resulting in the spontaneous generation of oscillations.
A simple mechanism for balancing at the border of instability with applications to persistent neural activity
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