steel

Definitions

  • STEEL PLATE ENGRAVINGS
    STEEL PLATE ENGRAVINGS
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v steel cover, plate, or edge with steel
    • v steel get ready for something difficult or unpleasant
    • n steel knife sharpener consisting of a ridged steel rod
    • n steel a cutting or thrusting weapon that has a long metal blade and a hilt with a hand guard
    • n steel an alloy of iron with small amounts of carbon; widely used in construction; mechanical properties can be varied over a wide range
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Steel-Bar Carpenter's Clamp Steel-Bar Carpenter's Clamp
Back of Steel Square, Brace Measure Back of Steel Square, Brace Measure
Face of Steel Square, Octagon, 'Eight-Square,' Scale Face of Steel Square, Octagon, 'Eight-Square,' Scale
Method of Using the Eight-Square Scale on the Steel-Square Method of Using the Eight-Square Scale on the Steel-Square
Back of Steel Square, Essex Board Measure Back of Steel Square, Essex Board Measure
Steel Square with Rafter Table Steel Square with Rafter Table
Sammy Steele's Mule Kicked the Boy Sammy Steele's Mule Kicked the Boy
Construction of steel frame building Construction of steel frame building

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Every second, 630 steel cans are recycled
    • Steel (Med) A chalybeate medicine.
    • Steel A piece of steel for striking sparks from flint.
    • Steel (Metal) A variety of iron intermediate in composition and properties between wrought iron and cast iron (containing between one half of one per cent and one and a half per cent of carbon), and consisting of an alloy of iron with an iron carbide. Steel, unlike wrought iron, can be tempered, and retains magnetism. Its malleability decreases, and fusibility increases, with an increase in carbon.
    • Steel A weapon, as a sword, dagger, etc.
    • Steel An instrument of steel (usually a round rod) for sharpening knives.
    • Steel An instrument or implement made of steel
    • Steel Fig.: Anything of extreme hardness; that which is characterized by sternness or rigor. "Heads of steel .""Manhood's heart of steel ."
    • Steel To cause to resemble steel, as in smoothness, polish, or other qualities. "These waters, steeled By breezeless air to smoothest polish."
    • Steel (Elec) To cover, as an electrotype plate, with a thin layer of iron by electrolysis. The iron thus deposited is very hard, like steel.
    • Steel To make hard or strong; hence, to make insensible or obdurate. "Lies well steeled with weighty arguments.""O God of battles! steel my soldiers' hearts.""Why will you fight against so sweet a passion,
      And steel your heart to such a world of charms?"
    • Steel To overlay, point, or edge with steel; as, to steel a razor; to steel an ax.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The silk that is produced by spiders is stronger than steel
    • n steel A modified form of iron, not occurring in nature, but known and manufactured from very early times, and at the present time of the highest importance in its various applications to the wants of man. For certain purposes, and especially for the manufacture of tools and weapons, there is no metal or metallic alloy which could take the place of steel. The most essential features of steel as compared with iron are elasticity and hardness, and these qualities can be varied in amount to a very extraordinary degree, in the same piece of steel, by slight changes in the manipulation. Steel can be hardened so as to cut glass, by rapid cooling after being strongly healed, and it can be tempered, by reheating after hardening, so as permanently to take the precise degree of hardness best adapted to the use to which it is to be applied. (See temper.) Steel has been known from very early times, but where and how first manufactured is not known. That it has long been in use in India, and that it is still manufactured in that country by methods precisely similar to those in use long ago are well-known facts. (See wootz.) It is thought by some to have been known to the pyramid-builders; but this has not yet been demonstrated, and the same is true of the ancient Semites. The words translated ‘steel’ in the authorized version of the Old Testament signify ‘copper’ or ‘bronze,’ and are usually rendered ‘brass,’ ‘brazen.’ That steel was clearly recognized as something distinct from iron by the author or authors of the Homeric poems cannot be proved. The earliest known and simplest method of reducing iron from its ore—the so-called “direct process”—is capable also of furnishing steel, although a sufficiently homogeneous product cannot be easily obtained by this method. This would explain how steel became known at an early period, and why it was so long before it became an article of general use, with well-established methods of manufacture. Steel is a form of iron in which the amount of carbon is intermediate between that in wrought- and that in cast-iron, and this carbon does not exist in the steel in the form of graphite, but is either combined with or dissolved in it; but the subject of the relation of carbon to iron is one of difficulty, and is now undergoing investigation at the hands of various skilled metallurgical chemists. Other ingredients besides carbon are also present in steel—namely, silicon, manganese, sulphur, and phosphorus. Of these the two first mentioned are probably never entirely wanting, and they are not especially undesirable or injurious, as is the case with the two others, of which only traces can be permitted in the best quality of steel. They are all, however, different from carbon, which latter is regarded as an essential element of steel, while the others may be looked upon as being more or less of the nature of impurities. The quality of steel varies with the amount of carbon present, and the effect of this latter element varies with the amount of impurity (silicon, etc.) present in the steel. The larger the amount of impurity, the larger is the quantity of carbon required to give to the iron the character of steel. In the case of the best bar-iron, a little over 0.3 per cent. of carbon is sufficient to give it a steely character; from 0.5 to 0.65 per cent. of carbon, according to the purity of the iron, gives a steel which can be hardened so as to strike fire with flint. Iron containing from 1 to 1.5 per cent. of carbon gives steel which, after tempering, combines the maximum hardness with the maximum tenacity. One per cent. of carbon gives, on the whole, the most generally useful steel. With more than 1.5 per cent. of carbon the tenacity and weldability of the steel are diminished, although the hardness may be increased. With more than 1.74 per cent. of carbon the steel ceases to be weldable, and is with difficulty drawn out under the hammer; and from 1.8 to 2.0 per cent. is usually considered as the limit between steel and cast-iron, the steel with that amount breaking when hammered after softening by heat. Since steel is intermediate between wrought- and cast-iron in the amount of carbon which it contains, it is evident that it might be made either by carburizing the former or decarburizing the latter. The method of carburization, or cementation as it is generally called, is one of the oldest, perhaps the most ancient, as, although differing greatly in the details, in the essentials it is the same as the process by which the Indian wootz is manufactured. The cementation process was described in detail by Réaumur in a work published in 1722. By this method blister-steel is obtained, and this is further worked up into spring-, shear-, and double-shear steel by one or more processes of fagoting, welding, and hammering or rolling, the object of this being to give the metal greater homogeneity. A great addition to the value of this process was the invention by Huntsman, in 1740, of cast-steel, the product of the fusion in crucibles, under suitable manipulation, of blister-steel, which process is still in use as first arranged almost without change. By this method, when iron of a sufficiently high grade is used, the finest quality of steel is produced, and it is only steel manufactured in this way which can be used for the best tools, weapons, and cutting instruments of all kinds. The methods of producing steel by the decarburization of pig-iron are numerous and varied. The Styrian method of decarburization in the open-hearth finery, whereby a material called raw steel is produced, was once of very considerable importance, but is now little used. The method of decarburizing pig-iron by puddling, which is similar in principle to the ordinary puddling process used for converting pig- into wrought-iron, is also somewhat extensively employed, especially on the continent of Europe, the product being called puddled steel, this being drawn into bars, which are cut up and remelted, as is done with blister-steel in manufacturing cast-steel. There are various methods for producing steel by fusing pig-iron with iron ores, or with wrought-iron, or with both together. The Uchatius process belongs to this class of processes, but is of comparatively small importance; but the processes known as the “Siemens,” the “Martin,” and the “Siemens-Martin” are extensively employed. The steel made by any of these processes is generally called open-hearth steel, as the work of decarburizing the pig is done in the open-hearth regenerative furnace. The difference between these processes is simply that in the first-named the pig-iron is treated with certain iron ores without the addition of wrought-iron (scrap-iron); in the second the pig is melted with scrap-iron; and in the third both scrap and ore are used together: hence the names by which the first two of these modifications of what is essentially the same process are known—pig-and-ore, pig-arid-scrap—the third, or the “Siemens-Martin,” being the most commonly employed. By far the most important of all steel-producing processes, if only the amount of the metal produced is considered, is the “pneumatic” or “Bessemer” process, invented by Sir Henry Bessemer about 1856, which consists in blowing air through molten pig-iron in a “converter,” or vessel of iron lined with a refractory material—the oxidation of the carbon and silicon which the pig contains, together with a small part of the iron itself, furnishing sufficient heat to keep the material in a fluid state while the operation of decarburization goes on. After complete decarburization of the iron, a certain amount of carbon is restored to the metal by the introduction of spiegeleisen or ferromanganese; this extremely important addition to the Bessemer process, without which it would hardly have been a success, was contributed by R. F. Mushet. The Bessemer process, as conducted in a converter lined with the ordinary silicious or “acid” material, is suited only for working iron which is practically free from phosphorus and sulphur, or such as is made from ore like that of Lake Superior, from which all, or nearly all, the Bessemer steel made in the United States is manufactured. By the so-called “basic” or “Thomas-Gilchrist” process, the converter having a basic (calcined dolomite) lining, iron containing a considerable amount of phosphorus is treated, and a fair quality of steel produced, the phosphorus passing into the slag during the operation, as is the case in puddling. The metal produced by the Bessemer process is generally called Bessemer steel, but some consider it more correct to call it ingot-iron. It can be produced of various grades by varying the amount of carbon which it contains, and is a material of the highest value for structural purposes—as being cheaper, and having more durability, than wrought-iron made by puddling-although of no value for the purposes for which the older higher-class steels are employed. Its principal use is for rails, and during the past few years from seventy to eighty per cent. of the Bessemer steel made in the United States has been used for that purpose.
    • n steel A single span of the Forth Bridge is nearly as long as two Eiffel Towers turned horizontally and tied together in the middle, and the whole forms a complicated steel structure weighing 15,000 tons, erected without the possibility of any intermediate support, the lace-like fabric of the bridge soaring as high as the top of St. Paul's. The steel of which the compression members of the structure are composed contains
    • n steel of carbon and
    • n steel of manganese. The parts subjected to extension do not contain more than
    • n steel of carbon.
    • n steel Something made of steel. Specifically— A cutting or piercing weapon; especially, a sword. Compare cold steel, below.
    • n steel A piece of steel for striking sparks from flint to ignite tinder or match.
    • n steel A mirror.
    • n steel A cylindrical or slightly tapering rod of steel, sometimes having fine parallel longitudinal lines, used for sharpening carving-knives, etc.
    • n steel A strip of steel used to stiffen a corset, or to expand a woman's skirt.
    • steel Made of steel: as, a steel plate or buckle.
    • steel Hard as steel; inflexible; unyielding.
    • steel To fit with steel, as by pointing, edging, overlaying, electroplating, or the like.
    • steel To iron (clothes).
    • steel To make hard as steel; render strong, rigid, inflexible, determined, etc.; make firm or stubborn.
    • steel To cause to resemble steel in smoothness or polish.
    • n steel An obsolete form of steal, stale.
    • n steel Steel made from the ore by a direct process.
    • n steel Such steel rolled in the shapes adapted for these uses, such as angles, tees, channels, I-beams, T-beams, Z-bars, and deck-beams.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The Sears Tower in Chicago contains enough steel to build 50,000 automobiles
    • n Steel stēl iron combined in varying proportions with carbon for making edged tools: any instrument or weapon of steel: an instrument of steel for sharpening knives on: a strip of steel for stiffening a corset: a piece of steel for striking fire from a flint: extreme hardness: a chalybeate medicine
    • adj Steel made of steel: hard, unfeeling
    • v.t Steel to overlay or edge with steel: to harden: to make obdurate
    • ***

Quotations

  • Richard M. Nixon
    Richard%20M.%20Nixon
    “The finest steel has to go through the hottest fire.”
  • Napoleon Hill
    Napoleon%20Hill
    “Character is to man what carbon is to steel.”
  • Reinhold Niebuhr
    Reinhold%20Niebuhr
    “If we survive danger it steels our courage more than anything else.”
  • William Shakespeare
    William%20Shakespeare
    “After life's fitful fever he sleeps well. Treason has done his worst. Nor steel nor poison, malice domestic, foreign levy, nothing can touch him further.”
  • Philip Streifer
    Philip Streifer
    “After finding no qualified candidates for the position of principal, the school board is extremely pleased to announce the appointment of David Steele to the post.”
  • Robert Townsend
    Robert Townsend
    “A good leader needs to have a compass in his head and a bar of steel in his heart.”

Idioms

Heart of steel - When someone has a heart of steel, they do not show emotion or are not affected emotionally.
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Nerves of steel - If someone has nerves of steel, they don't get frightened when other people do.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
AS. stēl, stȳl, stȳle,; akin to D. staal, G. stahl, OHG. stahal, Icel. stāl, Dan. staal, Sw. stål, Old Prussian stakla,

Usage

In literature:

Miss Steele is one of my teachers, Jones, and we three are going to brush up our classics together, you see.
"Tom, Dick and Harry" by Talbot Baines Reed
And I find Mr. Steele has beat me to it by a minute or so.
"Shorty McCabe on the Job" by Sewell Ford
The two fore legs of the fox were securely fastened in the steel trap, which seemed to have closed on him about four inches up from his feet.
"Winter Adventures of Three Boys" by Egerton R. Young
This specimen of the Miss Steeles was enough.
"Sense and Sensibility" by Jane Austen
And that Steele not only could but would do two men's work if it seemed his duty, goes without saying to those who knew him.
"Policing the Plains" by R.G. MacBeth
Steel Tempering-.-Heat the steel red hot and then plunge it into sealing wax.
"Practical Mechanics for Boys" by J. S. Zerbe
With portrait on steel.
"Cattle and Their Diseases" by Robert Jennings
Imported steel billets were sold at the very doors of the Steel Corporation factories.
"History of the United States, Volume 5" by E. Benjamin Andrews
She dropped down behind the rock, but instead of tears there came steel.
"The Bishop of Cottontown" by John Trotwood Moore
The Steel Strike of 1901 was a conflict over the unionizing of certain hitherto non-union plants of the United States Steel Corporation.
"History of the United States, Volume 6 (of 6)" by E. Benjamin Andrews
Thin sheet steel, with a gray crackle finish.
"Damned If You Don't" by Gordon Randall Garrett
He stared at her, clutching the steel box in his nervous hands.
"Lorraine" by Robert W. Chambers
It is a cord made of three steel wires twisted loosely together.
"Diggers in the Earth" by Eva March Tappan
He afterwards took steel and bitters.
"An Account of the Foxglove and some of its Medical Uses" by William Withering
I heard Madame Steele cry out last night, but no word from you.
"Under the Southern Cross" by Elizabeth Robins
But the most remarkable members of the little senate, as Pope long afterwards called it, were Richard Steele and Thomas Tickell.
"Critical and Historical Essays, Volume III (of 3)" by Thomas Babington Macaulay
Skillfully the scientist maneuvered it over to the other side of the room, picked up a steel bar four inches in diameter and five feet long.
"Empire" by Clifford Donald Simak
Here Addison could be found almost every afternoon and evening, along with Steele, Davenant, Carey, Philips, and other kindred minds.
"All About Coffee" by William H. Ukers
The ringing of steel on steel, the pounding of horses' hooves, and the cries of men drifted to them from below.
"The Saracen: The Holy War" by Robert Shea
You couldn't grind Latin and Greek into me with a steel-rolling machine.
"In a Little Town" by Rupert Hughes
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In poetry:

But my
poetry's muse
takes to the air
on wings made of steel
like the I-beams
of my suspension bridges!
"Regarding Art" by Nazim Hikmet
Shadow races with shadow,
Steel comes quick on steel,
Swords that are deadly silent
And shadows that do not feel.
"A Vision" by Patrick MacGill
I WHISPERED to the bobolink:
"Sweet singer of the field,
Teach me a song to reach a heart
In maiden armor steeled."
"I Whispered To The Bobolink" by Isabel Ecclestone Mackay
The World is Hell as man shows it;
The creatures are of steel;
To live is of superior wit,
To fail is thus to feel.
"The World is Hell" by Marcus Mosiah Garvey
"True Irishmen have often met,
One common cause to feel,
And many a furious onset met,
With 'valor's clashing steel.'
"A Protestant Irishman To His Wife" by Thomas Frederick Young
I only know I 'd wait, and keep
Steel-loyal and steel-true
Unto the highest hope I held,
Though 't were the saddest, too.
"A Woman's Mood" by Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward

In news:

While suspended in a harness, the star fell onto a steel barricade , ending the show immediately.
Virginia Tech safety Josh Morgan blocks a punt against Cincinnati's Brian Steel more.
'Steel Magnolias': Back to the beauty shop .
This is the first time the world will produce a billion tonnes of steel in a single year.
Curtis Popp's Birdhouse in teak and steel by CPopp Workshop, 916-207-9106.
William Kristol & Shelby Steele: Chapter 5.
Rob Shapiro has been pounding out steel at the New York State Fair for 25 years.
Steel Mill Combustion and Thermal Systems (October 16, 2012.
Saturday Night Live at the Oldies w/ Shadoe Steele Saturday Nights: 7:00 AM - 12:00 AM.
Steel Magnolia's latest " Steeling Covers" Kenny Chesney and Grace Potter "You and Tequila".
The Iron & Steel Council includes steelmakers ThyssenKrupp AG, SSAB, US Steel Corp.
Under the agreement, Olympic Steel will acquire all outstanding common shares of CTI, and CTI will become a wholly owned subsidiary of Olympic Steel.
Football expert Phil Steele is the owner and publisher of Phil Steele's College Football Preview, regarded as the college football bible.
From left are Darrell Miller, Marc Dodrill, Buddy Perry, Ed Bryan, Donna Byerly, Wayne Vardaman, Floyd Liechty, Dan Steele, Linda Steele, and Bill Borne.
Steel On Steel is a weekly program dedicated to the sharpening of ideas, news, commentary, interview, information, and debate, much of which you will NOT hear elsewhere.
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In science:

The steel layer also provides the mechanical structures to the system.
A CsI(Tl) Scintillating Crystal Detector for the Studies of Low Energy Neutrino Interactions
The case of maximum weight matching with random weights is treated by Aldous and Steele [AS03] for the case of a randomly generated tree on n nodes.
Linear Phase Transition in Random Linear Constraint Satisfaction Problem
Steele, The objective method: Probabilistic combinatorial optimization and local weak convergence, Discrete Combinatorial Probability, H.
Linear Phase Transition in Random Linear Constraint Satisfaction Problem
Steele, Minimal spanning trees for graphs with random edge lenghts, Mathematics and Computer Science II.
Linear Phase Transition in Random Linear Constraint Satisfaction Problem
Steele, The objective method: Probabilistic combinatorial optimization and local weak convergence, Preprint, 2002.
Random MAX SAT, Random MAX CUT, and Their Phase Transitions
Mukherjea and Steele studied a correlated gambler’s ruin problem.
Limit theorems and absorption problems for one-dimensional correlated random walks
The Karp-Sipser method however does not apply to the case of non-deterministic weights and the authors [GNS03] solved the problem of computing limit (1) using the completely different Local Weak Convergence (LWC) method, developed earlier by Aldous [Ald92], [Ald01], Aldous and Steele[AS03].
Dynamics of exponential linear map in functional space
Steele, The objective method: Probabilistic combinatorial optimization and local weak convergence, Discrete Combinatorial Probability, H.
Dynamics of exponential linear map in functional space
Data of Orpe and Khakhar for the first two parameters are shown in Fig. 2a (open symbols) for 2 mm steel balls in rotating cylinders of 3 sizes and for different rotational speeds of the cylinders.
Surface Granular flows: Two Related Examples
It applies not only to regular periodic crystals, but also to polycrystalline materials like a typical bar of steel.
Nonaffine Correlations in Random Elastic Media
There are two main different hadronic prototype concepts under study both based on steel absorber.
CALICE Si/W electromagnetic calorimeter prototype, first testbeam results
A survey of this approach is given by Aldous and Steele (2004).
Processes on Unimodular Random Networks
Aldous and Steele (2004) survey introductory rigorous theory.
Processes on Unimodular Random Networks
A special form of the Mass-Transport Principle was considered, in different language, by Aldous and Steele (2004).
Processes on Unimodular Random Networks
Parts of it were also proved by Aldous and Steele (2004).
Processes on Unimodular Random Networks
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