• WordNet 3.6
    • n skull the bony skeleton of the head of vertebrates
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

"The pigtail came off with the skull-cap." "The pigtail came off with the skull-cap."
Skulls of Iguanodont and Trachodont Dinosaurs Skulls of Iguanodont and Trachodont Dinosaurs
Ankylosaurus, top view of skull in Ankylosaurus, top view of skull in
Skulls of Horned Dinosaurs Skulls of Horned Dinosaurs
Locality of Ankylosaurus skull in Edmonton formation in Red Deer River. The skull is in the rock just above the pick, about the center of the photograph Locality of Ankylosaurus skull in Edmonton formation in Red Deer River. The skull is in the rock just above the pick,...
X-ray apparatus used to look inside skull X-ray apparatus used to look inside skull

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Dolphins hear by having sound waves transmit through their skull to their inner ear region
    • Skull A covering for the head; a skullcap. "Let me put on my skull first."
    • n Skull A school, company, or shoal. "A knavish skull of boys and girls did pelt at him.""These fishes enter in great flotes and skulls."
    • Skull A sort of oar. See Scull.
    • Skull The head or brain; the seat of intelligence; mind. "Skulls that can not teach, and will not learn."
    • Skull (Anat) The skeleton of the head of a vertebrate animal, including the brain case, or cranium, and the bones and cartilages of the face and mouth. See Illusts. of Carnivora, of Facial angles under Facial, and of Skeleton, in Appendix.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Vikings, after killing their enemies, used their skulls as drinking vessels
    • n skull A bowl; a bowl to hold liquor; a goblet.
    • n skull The cranium; the skeleton of the head; the bony or cartilaginous framework of the head, containing the brain and supporting the face. A skull is possessed by all vertebrates excepting the lancelets, and by no other animals. It is sometimes divided into the skull proper, cranium in strictness or brain-box, and the facial region or face. In the adult human skull eight cranial and fourteen facial bones are commonly enumerated, though the real number of osseous elements is much larger. The eight cranial bones are the occipital, two parietal, two temporal, frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoid. The fourteen facial bones are two nasals, two lacrymals, two superior maxillaries, two malars, two palatals, two inferior turbinals, one inferior maxillary, and one vomer. This enumeration of the bones is exclusive of the bonelets of the ear, which, however, are counted in vertebrates below mammals. Of these bones, the mandible, vomer, and frontal are really paired, or of lateral halves; the supramaxillary, ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital, and temporal are compound bones of several separate centers of ossification; the rest are simple. The most composite bone is the temporal, whose ankylosed stylohyoid process (peculiar to man) is an element of the hyoid arch. A skull of similar construction characterizes mammals at large, though its figure is usually quite different (owing mainly to production of the facial and reduction of the cranial parts), and though some of the bones which are confluent in man may remain distinct. In birds the skull is characterized by the great size of the cranial bones in comparison with that of the facial bones (excepting the specially enlarged intermaxillary and inframaxillary), the extensive and complete ankyloses of cranial bones, the permanent and perfect distinctness of pterygoid bones, the formation of each half of the lower jaw by several recognizable pieces, and especially by the intervention of a movable quadrate bone between the squamosal and the mandible. Some other additional bones make their appearance; and the occipital condyle is always single. A skull of similar construction to that of birds characterizes reptiles proper; but here again the cranial is small in comparison with the facial region (as in the lower mammals), sometimes excessively so; the skull is more loosely constructed, with fewer ankyloses of its several elements; and some additional bones not found in any higher vertebrates first appear. The skulls of batrachians differ widely from all the above. Some additional elements appear; some usually ossified elements may be persistently cartilaginous; and branchial as well as hyoidean arches are seen to be parts of the skull. The further modifications of the skull in fishes are great and diversified: not only is there much variation in the skulls of different fishes, but also the difference between any of their skulls and those of higher vertebrates is so great that some of the bones can be only doubtfully homologized with those of higher vertebrates, while of others no homologues can be recognized. In these ichthyopsidan vertebrates, also, the skull is sometimes permanently cartilaginous, as in selachians; in the lampreys the lower jaw disappears; in the lancelets there is no skull. In fislies, also, more or fewer branchial arches are conspicuous parts of the skull, forming usually, with the compound lower jaw, by far the bulkier section of this collection of bones; and in some of them the connection of the shoulder-girdle with the skull is such that it is not always easy to say of certain bones whether they are more properly scapular or cranial. The natural evolution of the skull is, of course, from the lower to the higher vertebrates (the reverse of that above sketched). Above lampreys and hags, after a lower jaw has been acquired, the general course of evolution of the skull is to the reduction in number of its bones or cartilages by the entire disappearance of some and the confluence of others, tending on the whole to the compactness, simplicity, and symmetry of which the human skull is the extreme case, and in which, as in the skull of any mammal or bird, evidences of its actual osseous elements are chiefly to be traced in the transitory centers of ossification of the embryo. A good illustration of this is witnessed in the condition of the bones of the tongue (hyoid arch) in mammals; for even in birds (next below mammals) the tongue has a skeleton of several distinct bones, the position of which in a series of arches next after the mandibular and next before the branchial arches proper is evident. The base of the skull is generally laid down in cartilage. The dome of the skull and the facial parts are usually of membrane-bones; and to the latter some dermal or exoskeletal bones may be added. Facial parts of all skulls are of different character from cranial parts proper, in that they belong essentially to the series of visceral (hemal, not neural) arches: upper jaw; under jaw; tongue (hyoid), followed by more or fewer successive branchial arches. The neural arches, or cranial segments proper, are at least 3 (some count 4) in number, named occipital, parietal, and frontal, from behind forward, represented respectively by the occipital bone; the basisphenoid, alisphenoid, and parietal bones; the presphenoid, orbitosphenoid, and frontal bones. With these are intercalated or connected the sense-capsules of the three higher senses—namely, of hearing, sight, and smell—these being the skeletons of the ear, eye, and nose, or the petrosal parts of the temporal, the sclerotic coat of the eye, and the lateral masses of the ethmoid bone. Remaining hard parts of the head, and, as such, elements of the skull, are the teeth, borne on more or fewer bones; in mammals, when present, confined to the premaxillaries, supramaxillaries, and inframaxillaries; not present in any existing birds; in various reptiles and fishes, absent, or borne upon the bones above named, and also, in that case, upon the sphenoid, vomer, palatals, pterygoids, hyoids, pharyngeals, etc. The body of facts or principles concerning skulls is craniology, of which craniometry is one department, especially applied to the measurement of human skulls for the purposes of ethnography or anthropology. For the human skull (otherwise than as here figured), see cuts under craniofacial, craniometry, cranium, ear, nasal, orbit, palate, parietal, and skeleton. For various other mammalian skulls, see cuts under Balænidæ, Canidæ, castor, Catarrhina, Edentata, Elephantinæ, Equidæ, Felidæ, Leporidæ, Mastodontinæ, Muridæ, ox, physeter, Pteropodidæ, ruminant, skeleton. Birds' skulls, or parts of them, are figured under chondrocranium, desmognathous, diploë, dromæognathous, Gallinæ, Ichthyornis, quadrate, salivary, saurognathous, schizognathous, schizorhinal, sclerotal; reptiles', under acrodont, Chelonia, Crocodilia, Crotalus, Cyclodus, Ichthyosauria, Ichthyosaurus, Mosasaurus, Ophidia, periotic, Plesiosaurus, pleurodont, pterodactyl, Pythonid æ; batrachians', under Anura, girdle-bone, Rana; fishes', under Acipenser, Esox, fish, Lepidosiren, palatoquadrate, parasphenoid, Petromyzon, Spatularia, Squatina, teleost. The absence of a skull appears under Branchiostoma and Pharyngobranchii. The homology of several visceral arches is shown under hyoid.
    • n skull The head as the seat of intelligence; the sconce or noddle: generally used disparagingly.
    • n skull In armor, that part of a head-piece which covers the crown or the head, especially in the head-pieces made up of many parts, such as the armet. See cut under secret.
    • n skull A large shallow basket without a bow-handle, used for carrying fruit, potatoes, fish, etc.
    • n skull In metallurgy, the crust which is formed by the cooling of a metal upon the sides of a ladle or any vessel used for containing or conveying it in a molten condition. Such a crust or skull is liable to form on the Bessemer converter when the blowing has been continued beyond the point of entire decarburization.
    • n skull See scull.
    • n skull An obsolete form of school.
    • n skull The common skua, Megalestris skua. Also scull.
    • n skull The trade-name for the anterior plate of the carapace of the hawk's-bill turtle, which yields the tortoise-shell of commerce.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: In Hans Holbein's painting, "The Ambassadors," the artist added a small skull as a way of signing his name. Holbein is another word for "hollow bone" or "a skull."
    • n Skull skul the bony case that encloses the brain: the head, the sconce, noddle: a crust formed on the ladle, &c., by the partial cooling of molten metal: in armour, the crown of the head-piece:
    • n Skull skul (Scot.) a shallow, bow-handled basket
    • ***


  • Amy Lowell
    Amy Lowell
    “Hate is ravening vulture beaks descending on a place of skulls.”
  • Herman Melville
    “The lightning flashes through my skull; mine eyeballs ache and ache; my whole beaten brain seems as beheaded, and rolling on some stunning ground.”
  • Ambrose Bierce
    “Erudition. Dust shaken out of a book into an empty skull.”


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. skulle, sculle, scolle,; akin to Scot. skull, skoll, a bowl, Sw. skalle, skull, skal, a shell, and E. scale,; cf. G. hirnschale, Dan. hierneskal,. Cf. Scale of a balance
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Ice. skál, a shell; conn. with shell and scale, a thin plate.


In literature:

"Freedom in Science and Teaching." by Ernst Haeckel
There was a buffalo-skull on that hill which he sit on.
"The Woman from Outside" by Hulbert Footner
I do not hold, either, with the total removal of the skull.
"Practical Taxidermy" by Montagu Browne
When first I happened upon the Skull and Spectacles it attracted me at once.
"Marjorie" by Justin Huntly McCarthy
Moreover, Rochard had a fractured skull as well.
"The Backwash of War" by Ellen N. La Motte
The inner table of the skull no doubt was splintered, hence the brain mischief.
"The Pools of Silence" by H. de Vere Stacpoole
Flowers and vines are planted here to beautify this shrine, and every pole has a bear-skull on it.
"Flash-lights from the Seven Seas" by William L. Stidger
You lay still, or there'll be an ugly bump on your skull.
"The Rider of Waroona" by Firth Scott
Buckley will probably live ... that is all the Stenton doctor will say; a piece of his skull has been removed.
"Mountain Blood" by Joseph Hergesheimer
The natives showed great reluctance in bringing me skulls and skeletons.
"Two Years with the Natives in the Western Pacific" by Felix Speiser

In poetry:

The moon is but a golden skull,
She mounts the heavens now,
And Moon-Worms, mighty Moon-Worms
Are wreathed around her brow.
"What The Hyena Said" by Vachel Lindsay
A smile, the visage shall embrace,
When nature's cup is full;
Behind the stern and frowning face
There lies a grinning skull.
"Smiles." by Alfred Castner King
Hard by the bow'r her gibbet stands;
Her skull is still to show;
It seems to eye the barren grave,
Three spans in length below.
"Specimen Of The Former Translation Of The Lass Of Fair Wone" by Charlotte Dacre
When flesh is linked with eager flesh,
And words run warm and full,
I think that he is loneliest then,
The captive in the skull.
"Listen..." by Ogden Nash
The greawnd it sturr'd beneath my feet,
An' then I yerd o groan;
He shook the dust fro' off his skull,
An' rowlt away the stone.
"Tim Bobbin' Grave" by Samuel Bamford
The only thing I heard he said was, he was most to blame;
But he fought the men that took him like a tiger. 'Twas a shame
He'd got away; he ought to swing: a man that killed his wife
And broke her skull in with an axe—he ought to lose his life!
"Sheltered" by Sarah Orne Jewett

In news:

Skull fractures account for 23 to 66% of head traumas.
12-million-year-old dolphin skull found on beach near Calvert Cliffs.
Two scientists have unearthed a complete skull of a mammoth that wandered the English countryside 50,000 years ago -- only the second intact example found in Britain.
In the early 20th century, Charles Dawson, an amateur archaeologist in Britain, made an astonishing discovery: a half-chimp, half-human skull found in the Sussex village of Piltdown.
Thanks to films like Indiana Jones, the crystal skull is "woven into our modern-day consciousness," Winchester says.
It's a game of "Track that Skull".
Janet Monge of the Penn Museum examines some of the Morton collection skulls with her colleague, Alan Mann.
Denise Oswald Leaps From Stolid FSG Right into Soft Skull.
8-foot triceratops skull discovered in South Dakota might be biggest ever.
Alan Detrich has hunted dinosaur fossils since the 1990s and believes the triceratops skull a colleague found near Buffalo may be the biggest ever.
I don't know how many times I will have to learn this lesson before I get it through my thick skull: I cannot predict the future.
Announcing its acquisition of Counterpoint Press, Winton , Shoemaker & Co LLC has acquired Soft Skull Press.
'Bones' 150th Episode Features Cyndi Lauper and a Skull.
Rare Specimens From a World -Class Skull Collection.
Someone intentionally crushed her skull.

In science:

En s ådan kunskapsbas skulle inneh ålla information om ub åtars beteende under olika skeenden av en ub åtsoperation samt information om ub åtars t änkbara m åls ättningar.
Beslutst\"odssystemet Dezzy - en \"oversikt
Tro l iga s te f ä rdv äg Analysmetoden troligaste f ärdv äg skulle kunna kompletteras med prediktion.
Beslutst\"odssystemet Dezzy - en \"oversikt
De olika f ärdv ägarna skulle d å kunna ge information om framtida troliga l ägen samt kurser efter de sista rapporterna, medan de idag endast behandlar situationen fram till den sista rapporten.
Beslutst\"odssystemet Dezzy - en \"oversikt
Ev iden ska r to r Prediktionen skulle kunna v ägas in i evidenskartor som har ber äknats f ör en framtida tidpunkt.
Beslutst\"odssystemet Dezzy - en \"oversikt
Till skillnad fr ån fallet troligaste f ärdv äg skulle detta inte ge detaljkunskap om de olika t änkbara fallen utan i st ället en mer sammanfattande bild av ett framtida l äge.
Beslutst\"odssystemet Dezzy - en \"oversikt