shotgun

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n shotgun firearm that is a double-barreled smoothbore shoulder weapon for firing shot at short ranges
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: In 1982, a cactus in Phoenix, Arizona killed a man. David Grundman fired two shotgun blasts at a giant saguaro cactus that ended up falling on top of him
    • n Shotgun A light, smooth-bored gun, often double-barreled, especially designed for firing small shot at short range, and killing small game.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Calling for shutgun comes form the Western Days when in the wagon the guy sitting next to the driver held a Shotgun for protection.
    • n shotgun A smooth-bore gun used for firing small shot, as in the chase of birds and small quadrupeds; a fowling-piece: commonly called gun simply, in implied distinction from rifle or other small-arm. Some shot-guns are too heavy to be brought to the shoulder. (See punt-gun, ducking-gun.) Shot-guns are usually either single-barreled or double-barreled; rarely a third barrel is added; sometimes one of the barrels is rifled (see the quotation), Besides being smooth-bored, a shot-gun differs from any form of rifle in having no hind-sight and a simple pin as fore-sight. Shot-guns are also distinguished as muzzle-loaders and breech-loaders; the former are little used now. Though the bore is always smooth, it is often contracted toward the muzzle to concentrate the discharge. (See choke-bore.) The standard shot-gun now most used by sportsmen is the double-barreled breech-loader, of 7 to 10 pounds weight, about 30 inches length of barrel, length and drop of stock fitting the shooter, often with pistol-grip, caliber usually 10, 12, or 14, and taking corresponding sizes of paper or metal shot-cartridges (see shell) with center-fire primers or percussion-caps and an automatic ejector; such as have the cock or hammer concealed in the mechanism of the lock are specified as hammerless. The special makes are numberless, but decided variations from the standard pattern are rare. Shot-guns are seldom fitted with hair-triggers, but usually with rebounding locks, in which the hammer flies back to half-cock on delivering the blow on the plunger. A special form of shot-gun, used by naturalists, is described under cane-gun.
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Idioms

Ride shotgun - If you ride shotgun, you protect or guard something when it is being transported.
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Shotgun marriage - A shotgun marriage, or shotgun wedding, is one that is forced because of pregnancy. It is also used idiomatically for a compromise, agreement or arrangement that is forced upon groups or people by necessity.
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Usage

In literature:

He did not reply, but evidently found what he sought for he came out presently carrying a shotgun.
"The Fighting Shepherdess" by Caroline Lockhart
Wounds from shotguns fired close to the animals are serious.
"Special Report on Diseases of the Horse" by United States Department of Agriculture
The Harmon brothers would do their whittling down with double-barreled shotguns.
"The Mississippi Saucer" by Frank Belknap Long
Billie raised the shotgun to her shoulder.
"The Motor Maids at Sunrise Camp" by Katherine Stokes
The warden was still "looking around" for the time to apply the last resource, the shotgun.
"The Arena" by Various
As for Jimmy, he insisted on a small bore rifle as well as a shotgun.
"The Lady and the Pirate" by Emerson Hough
The shotgun in the hands of the old Bron suddenly burst to pieces.
"Hunters Out of Space" by Joseph Everidge Kelleam
For ordinary use we will carry our 30-30s, and a number twelve shotgun.
"The Rogue Elephant" by Elliott Whitney
We are trying to fire education into boys with a shotgun, when we ought to get it into them inside of sugar coated pills.
"Peck's Sunshine Being a Collection of Articles Written for Peck's Sun, Milwaukee, Wis. - 1882" by George W. Peck
Before them stood a wooden rack with sockets, in which already were stacked a number of shotguns.
"The Adventures of Bobby Orde" by Stewart Edward White
In one corner stood half a dozen rifles and shotguns.
"Desert Conquest" by A. M. Chisholm
But wildcats is purty heavy, an' you-all can hit 'em with a shotgun.
"The Ghost Breaker" by Charles Goddard
Bab put her elbow on the back of her chair to steady her shotgun.
"The Automobile Girls in the Berkshires" by Laura Dent Crane
Shotgun dice, spout yo' lead.
"Lady Luck" by Hugh Wiley
One thing is certain, they should not be killed with shotguns!
"Our Bird Comrades" by Leander S. (Leander Sylvester) Keyser
And so we went on singing through the village amid the booming of shotguns in honour of the newly wed, to the house abandoned.
"A Village of Vagabonds" by F. Berkeley Smith
Now, all you fellers as has got pistols an' shotguns go home an' get 'em at oncet.
"Anderson Crow, Detective" by George Barr McCutcheon
Jud, having learned that there were partridges about, set off with his shotgun to see if he could bag a few of the plump birds.
"The Banner Boy Scouts Snowbound" by George A. Warren
For rifle an' shotgun.
"A Man to His Mate" by J. Allan Dunn
I met him in the woods when I was out during that last snow, looking for rabbits with my shotgun.
"Dave Porter and the Runaways" by Edward Stratemeyer
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In news:

It was a "shotgun" wedding alright, no denying that.
A lifted truck without some dirt on the tires is like a shotgun with no bullets—it's just pretty.
Check-in will begin at 8:30 am with a shotgun start at 9 am Cash prizes are $1,000 for first place, $500 for second place and $250 for third place.
Antique shotgun lands Marine in Mexico jail.
Sennheiser Mini-shotgun Points TSAV in a New Direction.
Derek Boe is accused of shooting a shotgun into a vehicle occupied by his girlfriend last January.
Police found a shotgun along with additional shells and 14 packages of marijuana they believe were intended for sale inside the house.
Today's action did not start until 3:15 pm because of wet weather forcing a shotgun start between all the participating teams.
Lucas County Coroner Dr James Patrick said Mr Lengel, 57, of Toledo suffered the shotgun wound to the left side of his chest .
Are accused of firing a shotgun in the 1200 block of Chew Street in Allentown Tuesday night.
In Farwell, is sitting in jail, charged with 7 crimes including attempted murder, all because he decided to shoot his shotgun into a truck driven by his friends.
A shotgun start is slated for 10 am with a dinner and awards ceremony to follow.
This rendering depicts what the shotgun house may look like after renovations.
Man jailed after shotgun blasts in Seelyville - 5 Hours Ago.
Prince George's County police negotiators convinced a man with a shotgun to surrender without incident around 12:30 pm Saturday after he barricaded himself inside an Upper Marlboro home for more than 10 hours.
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In science:

Our implementation made several practical improvements to the basic Shooting and Shotgun algorithms.
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
Shotgun does particularly well on the Large, Sparse Datasets category, for which most algorithms failed to converge anywhere near the ranges plotted in Fig. 3.
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
On this dataset, Shooting converges but requires ∼ 4900 seconds, while Shotgun takes < 2000 seconds.
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
On the Single-Pixel Camera datasets, Shotgun (P = 8) is slower than Shooting.
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
In fact, it is surprising that Shotgun converges at all with P = 8, for the plotted datasets all have P∗ = 3.
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
Each marker compares an algorithm with Shotgun (with P = 8) on one dataset (and one λ ∈ {0.5, 10}). Y-axis is that algorithm’s running time; X-axis is Shotgun’s (P=8) running time on the same problem.
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
Markers above the diagonal line indicate that Shotgun was faster; markers below the line indicate Shotgun was slower.
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
Algorithms’ termination criteria differ; e.g., primal-dual methods such as L1 LS monitor the duality gap, while Shotgun monitors the change in x.
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
Therefore, we emphasize ma jor trends: Shotgun robustly handles a range of problems; Theorem 3.2 helps explain its speedups; and Shotgun generally outperforms published solvers for the Lasso.
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
For logistic regression, we focus on comparing Shotgun with Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) variants.
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
SGD performs well and is fairly competitive with Shotgun CDN (with P = 8).
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
Shotgun CDN (P = 8) was much faster than SGD, especially in terms of the ob jective.
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
To understand the limiting factors, we analyzed various Shotgun-like algorithms to find bottlenecks.7 We found we were hitting the memory wal l (Wulf & McKee, 1995); memory bus bandwidth and latency proved to be the most limiting factors.
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
On zeta (n (cid:29) d), SGD converges faster initially, but Shotgun CDN (P=8) overtakes it.
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
We introduced the Shotgun, a simple parallel algorithm for L1 -regularized optimization.
Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization
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