sap

Definitions

  • Sap Bucket
    Sap Bucket
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v sap excavate the earth beneath
    • v sap deplete "exhaust one's savings","We quickly played out our strength"
    • n sap a piece of metal covered by leather with a flexible handle; used for hitting people
    • n sap a person who lacks good judgment
    • n sap a watery solution of sugars, salts, and minerals that circulates through the vascular system of a plant
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The Tonle Sap River in Cambodia flows north for almost half the year and then south for the rest of the year
    • n Sap (Mil) A narrow ditch or trench made from the foremost parallel toward the glacis or covert way of a besieged place by digging under cover of gabions, etc.
    • Sap A simpleton; a saphead; a milksop.
    • Sap The juice of plants of any kind, especially the ascending and descending juices or circulating fluid essential to nutrition.
    • Sap The sapwood, or alburnum, of a tree.
    • Sap To make unstable or infirm; to unsettle; to weaken. "Ring out the grief that saps the mind."
    • Sap (Mil) To pierce with saps.
    • v. i Sap To proceed by mining, or by secretly undermining; to execute saps. "Both assaults are carried on by sapping ."
    • Sap To subvert by digging or wearing away; to mine; to undermine; to destroy the foundation of. "Nor safe their dwellings were, for sapped by floods,
      Their houses fell upon their household gods."
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Thirty to 40 gallons of sugar maple sap must be boiled down to make just one gallon of maple syrup
    • n sap The juice or fluid which circulates in all plants, being as indispensable to vegetable life as is the blood to animal life. It is the first product of the digestion of plant-food, and contains the elements of vegetable growth in a dissolved condition. The absorption of nutriment from the soil is effected by the minute root-hairs and papillæ, the absorbed nutriment being mainly composed of carbonic acid and nitrogenous compounds dissolved in water. This ascending sap, or as it is termed crude sap, is apparently transmitted through the long cells in the vascular tissue of the stem and branches to the leaves, passing from cell to cell by the process known as endosmose. In the leaves is effected the process of digestion or assimilation, with the following results: the chemical decomposition of the oxygenated matter of the sap, the absorption of carbon dioxid (carbonic acid), and the liberation of pure oxygen at the ordinary atmospheric temperature; a counter-operation by which oxygen is absorbed from the air, and carbon dioxid exhaled; the transformation of the remaining crude sap into organic substances which enter into the composition of the plant: this change is effected in the chlorophyl-cells of the leaves under the influence of light, and the assimilated sap, or as it is termed elaborated sap, descends through the branches and stem to the growing parts of the plant requiring the same, there to be used up, after undergoing a series of changes included under the name metastasis, or to form deposits of reserve material lodged in various parts for future use. The ascent of the sap is one of the most wonderful phenomena of spring, and apparently depends not so much on the state of the weather—for it begins in the depth of winter—as on the plant having had its sufficient term of rest, and being, therefore, constrained by its very nature to renewed activity.
    • n sap Hence The juice or fluid the presence of which in anything is characteristic of a healthy, fresh, or vigorous condition; blood.
    • n sap The alburnum of a tree; the exterior part of the wood, next to the bark; sap-wood.
    • n sap Same as saphead.
    • sap To act like a sap; play the part of a ninny or a soft fellow.
    • n sap A tool for digging; a mattock.
    • n sap [⟨ sap, verb] Milit., a narrow ditch or trench by which approach is made to a fortress or besieged place when within range of fire. The trench is formed by trained men (sappers), who place gabions as a cover (filled with the earth taken from the trench) along the intended line of parapet—the earth excavated, after the gabions have been filled, being thrown toward the fortress, to form a parapet capable of resisting artillery. The single sap has only a single parapet; the double has one on each side. A sap is usually made by four men working together.
    • sap To undermine; render unstable by digging into or eating away the foundations, or, figuratively, by some analogous insidious or invisible process; impair the stability of, by insidious means: as, to sap a wall; to sap a person's constitution, or the morals of a community.
    • sap Milit., to approach or pierce with saps or trenches.
    • sap To dig or use saps or trenches; hence, to impair stability by insidious means.
    • n sap In archery, the light-colored portion of a bowstaff composed of the sap-wood. This portion forms the back of a self-bow.
    • n sap A quarryman's name for rock which is partially decayed and which exhibits this quality by iron stains and other discolorations. It is usually thrown away.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The sap of a banana plant leaves serious stains on hands and clothes that is extremely hard to remove
    • n Sap sap the vital juice of plants:
    • v.i Sap to play the part of a ninny: to be studious
    • v.t Sap sap to destroy by digging underneath: to undermine: to impair the constitution
    • v.i Sap to proceed by undermining:—pr.p. sap′ping; pa.t. and pa.p. sapped
    • n Sap a narrow ditch or trench by which approach is made from the foremost parallel towards the glacis or covert-way of a besieged place
    • n Sap sap (bot.) the part of the wood next to the bark: the blood: a simpleton: a plodding student
    • ***

Quotations

  • Fred A. Allen
    Fred%20A.%20Allen
    “I don't have to look up my family tree, because I know that I'm the sap.”
  • Leonardo Da Vinci
    Leonardo%20Da%20Vinci
    “Iron rusts from disuse, stagnant water loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen; even so does inaction sap the vigors of the mind.”
  • Leonardo Da Vinci
    Leonardo%20Da%20Vinci
    “As every divided kingdom falls, so every mind divided between many studies confounds and saps itself.”
  • James Russell Lowell
    James%20Russell%20Lowell
    “Sincerity is impossible, unless it pervade the whole being, and the pretence of it saps the very foundation of character.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
AS. sæp,; akin to OHG. saf, G. saft, Icel. safi,; of uncertain origin; possibly akin to L. sapere, to taste, to be wise, sapa, must or new wine boiled thick. Cf. Sapid Sapient
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
A.S. sæp; Low Ger. sapp, juice, Ger. saft.

Usage

In literature:

The trees have only their resinous sap as a weapon of defence.
"Jack" by Alphonse Daudet
Further patrolling was done each night down a long sap connecting the left of No.
"The 28th: A Record of War Service in the Australian Imperial Force, 1915-19, Vol. I" by Herbert Brayley Collett
For example, the Turks opposite to The Kangaroos were always sapping towards the Australasian lines.
"The Kangaroo Marines" by R. W. Campbell
Nothing more has been seen or heard of the two companies that reached Hook Sap.
"Q.6.a and Other places" by Francis Buckley
To get the sap we chopped a gash in the tree and drove in a spile.
"Children's Literature" by Charles Madison Curry
The sap-wood of timber, commonly termed the slab-cuts.
"The Sailor's Word-Book" by William Henry Smyth
Blocks of wood, cut into lengths of about two feet, they hollowed out with their axes, making troughs in which to catch the sap of maples.
"Far Past the Frontier" by James A. Braden
Drops of sap were running from the white wood.
"Clematis" by Bertha B. Cobb
They used them as wedges in prying the bark loose from the sap-wood of young trees.
"The Later Cave-Men" by Katharine Elizabeth Dopp
Both have the same peculiar vividness of colour, the same thick, sticky sap, and the same sickly, faint odour.
"Werwolves" by Elliott O'Donnell
Secure as they felt against his horrible presence it finally began to sap their courage.
"Omega, the Man" by Lowell Howard Morrow
I have said that water forms the chief nourishment of plants; it is the basis not only of the sap, but of all the vegetable juices.
"Conversations on Chemistry, V. 1-2" by Jane Marcet
The Indians also learned to boil down the sweet sap of the maple until it turned to sugar.
"Conservation Reader" by Harold W. Fairbanks
It sapped all his strength, leaving him physically weak.
"A Place in the Sun" by C.H. Thames
None the less, such copious sudation is an evil that wastefully saps vitality.
"When Life Was Young" by C. A. Stephens
The rising sap showed itself in two very different ways, in two branches of the national tree.
"A History of English Literature" by George Saintsbury
In her right hand the woman carried a large tin bucket, half filled with fresh-run maple-sap.
"The House in the Water" by Charles G. D. Roberts
He passed our Headquarters on the Western Mule Sap, walking briskly towards the trenches.
"With Manchesters in the East" by Gerald B. Hurst
If done at an early stage no sap will waste.
"The Mayflower, January, 1905" by Various
It is this sap which is so good for the blood.
"Amaryllis at the Fair" by Richard Jefferies
***

In poetry:

Each leaf a prayer,
And green fire everywhere ...
And all from Thee
The sap within the Tree.
"The Tree" by John Freeman
Though no hope of change they felt,
Folded hard together,
Soon their sap begins to melt
In the warmer weather.
"To K.M.D." by James Clerk Maxwell
These too have their part in me,
As I too in these;
Such fire is at heart in me,
Such sap is this tree's,
Which hath in it all sounds and all secrets of infinite lands and of seas.
"Hertha" by Algernon Charles Swinburne
Or didst thou rest upon the bare brown branches
And hear the sap go singing through the trees?--
Didst watch with keen, far-seeing downward glances,
The leaves unlock their cells with fairy keys?
"The Crow" by Virna Sheard
To dry the swathe, and yet to save the sap,
Should be your double aim. Some, void of skill,
Believe, that by long bleaching in the sun
Their end is gained; but thus they scorch, not dry,
The fragrant wreaths. This ancient error shun.
"British Georgics. June" by James Grahame
Oh that my prayers! mine, alas!
Oh that some Angel might a trumpet sound:
At which the Church falling upon her face
Should crie so loud, untill the trump were drown'd,
And by that crie of her deare Lord obtain,
That your sweet sap might come again!
"The Jews" by George Herbert

In news:

SAP Sales Rise, Cloud in Focus.
SAP AG Raised to Outperform From Mkt Perform by William Blair > SAP .
SAP is a provider of business management software, solutions, services for improving your business process.
SAP 's Jim Hagemann-Snabe takes on tough questions and rebuts Larry Ellison's barbs at the InformationWeek 500 Conference.
SAP buys b2b e-commerce portal Ariba for $4.3 billion.
Consult the owner's manual of your television to find out how to select your SAP channel SAP is only available on televisions with stereo.
Some remotes will have a button labeled Audio Select, MTS or SAP , use this button to cycle SAP on and off.
The London Olympics Sap -o-Meter.
SAP recently unveiled a number of mobile applications—including those that can benefit retailers and shoppers—that link to its enterprise application software.
Case studies and applications involving SAP .
Content tagged with " SAP ".
And in another ERP debacle, Avantor sues IBM over its "failed" SAP implementation.
SAPPHIRE NOW + SAP TechEd.
Run Better with SAP Visual Intelligence.
Electronics Company Directory SAP AG.
***

In science:

For example, for proteins with SwissProt accession number, we only keep the SAPs and PTMs that are annotated both by Swiss-Prot and GeneBank.
RAId DbS: A Mass-Spectrometry Based Peptide Identification Web Server with Knowledge Integration
Furthermore, it is proved that the same holds for subsets of n-edge Θ-SAPs that yield a specific after-strand-passage knottype.
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
This conjecture is supported by numerical evidence from Monte Carlo data generated using a composite (aka multiple) Markov Chain Monte Carlo BFACF algorithm developed to study ΘSAPs. A new maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the critical exponents relevant to this conjecture.
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
In our model, each equal-length Θ-SAP (with Θ fixed at the origin) is considered to be equally likely as a possible polymer configuration.
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
In the Θ-SAP model, a strand passage is performed at Θ only if the lattice sites between its two strands are empty (see figure 1 (a)), and in this case Θ is called Θ0 and polygons containing it are called Θ0 -SAPs.
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
Furthermore, it is proved that the same holds for each subset of n-edge unknotted Θ0 -SAPs that yields a specific after-strand-passage knot-type.
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
In , a composite Markov chain (CMC) Monte Carlo (also known as multiple Markov chain) algorithm was developed for studying Θ-SAPs with any given fixed knot-type.
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
SAP model in are expected to be broadly applicable to any self-avoiding polygon strand passage model.
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
The main advantage of the Θ-SAP model over the newer models is that it has been possible to prove results about it.
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
Specifically, in 2006, Liu et al investigated knotting probabilities after a local “virtual” strand passage in SAPs in Z3 ; the strand passage is termed virtual since the after-strand-passage polygon need not be a SAP in Z3 .
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
Furthermore, for the Θ-SAP model, we only consider a strand passage that yields a SAP in Z3 .
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
Thus it is not possible to directly compare the Liu et al results to any from the Θ-SAP model.
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
However, it is possible to investigate how the knotting probabilities for Θ0 -SAPs depend on the local geometry immediately adjacent to the fixed structure Θ0 .
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
SAPs that have a specified local juxtaposition geometry G and pG n (K ) is the number of these that yield a knot-type-K SAP after a single strand passage is performed at Θ0 .
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
SAP model, we need alternate schemes to classify the local geometry.
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
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