ruthenium

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n ruthenium a rare polyvalent metallic element of the platinum group; it is found associated with platinum
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Ruthenium (Chem) A rare element of the light platinum group, found associated with platinum ores, and isolated as a hard, brittle steel-gray metal which is very infusible. Symbol Ru. Atomic weight 103.5. Specific gravity 12.26. See Platinum metals, under Platinum.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n ruthenium Chemical symbol, Ru; atomic weight, 103.5 (Claus). A metal of the platinum group. The name was given by Osann, in 1828, to one of three supposed new metals found in platinum ores from the Ural mountains. Most of what is known of it is due to Claus, who, in 1845, proved the existence of one of Osann's new metals, and retained his name (ruthenium) for it, because there was really a new metal in the substance called by Osann “ruthenium oxide,” although, in point of fact, this was made up chiefly of various other substances—silica, zirconia, etc. Ruthenium is found in native platinum as well as in osmiridium, and in laurite, which is a sesqui-sulphuret of ruthenium, and occurs in Borneo and Oregon. It is a hard, brittle metal, fusing with more difficulty than any metal of the platinum group, with the exception of osmium. It is very little acted on by aqua regia, but combines with chlorin at a red heat. Its specific gravity, at 32°, is 12.261.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Ruthenium rōō-thē′ni-um a hard brittle metal discovered in 1843 by Claus in the ore of platinum, forming no fewer than four different oxides.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
NL. So named from the Ruthenians, a Little Russian people, as coming from Russia, the metal having been found in the Ural mountains
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Ruthenia, a name of Russia.

Usage

In literature:

Oxide of Ruthenium, Ru^{2}O^{9}.
"A System of Instruction in the Practical Use of the Blowpipe" by Anonymous
RUTHENIUM (Plate XVIII, 1).
"Occult Chemistry" by Annie Besant and Charles W. Leadbeater
Seubert redetermined this constant for platinum, osmium and iridium; E.H. Keiser for palladium, and A.A. Joly for ruthenium.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 1" by Various
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In news:

The Parker 51 pen has a ruthenium tip that doesn't crumple like gold and looks just as pretty.
Platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, gold, silver and osmium).
The iron-based complexes promise to replace catalysts containing ruthenium and other platinum-group metals.
Iron Replaces Ruthenium as Catalyst.
Colors consist of shades of black, havana, gold and ruthenium.
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In science:

We develop and validate an interatomic potential for ruthenium based on the embedded atom method framework with the Finnis/Sinclair representation.
Asperity contacts at the nanoscale: comparison of Ru and Au
Other pure metals, like ruthenium, have recently been used to build metal contacts in MEMS switches.
Asperity contacts at the nanoscale: comparison of Ru and Au
The main focus of this paper is a comparison of how asperity contacts form and separate in gold and in ruthenium.
Asperity contacts at the nanoscale: comparison of Ru and Au
This potential provides a reasonable description of both bulk and surface phenomena and was used previously in contact simulation experiments.7,8,9,10 We examined several potentials for ruthenium that were available in the literature.
Asperity contacts at the nanoscale: comparison of Ru and Au
Because none of the extant Ru potentials met the requirements for contact simulations, we develop a new EAM potential that reproduces the stacking fault energy and the surface energy of ruthenium with good accuracy.
Asperity contacts at the nanoscale: comparison of Ru and Au
TABLE II: Values of several physical properties of ruthenium determined using the new potential developed herein compared with values from calculations or experiments.
Asperity contacts at the nanoscale: comparison of Ru and Au
We have investigated the nano-contact mechanics of ruthenium using molecular dynamics simulations.
Asperity contacts at the nanoscale: comparison of Ru and Au
Unfortunately, the conductance of Ru and its failure are sensitive to oxygen and carbon contamination.49 In real Ru contacts, the surfaces are typically covered with layers of ruthenium oxide that can change the adhesion and stacking fault energies.
Asperity contacts at the nanoscale: comparison of Ru and Au
The light attenuation of clear fibers was measured coupling them to single scintillating fiber roads excited by a Ruthenium source.
Testrun results from prototype fiber detectors for high rate particle tracking
Catalytic oxidation of CO at the ruthenium transition metal surface has been reported to exhibit unusual behavior compared to other transition metals when studied at high pressures (Peden, 1992, and references therein).
Theory of Adsorption on Metal Substrates
We also mention that the sample was slightly contaminated in Ruthenium with a measured extraction ratio of 162.
Review of double beta experiments
The light attenuation of clear fibers was measured coupling them to single scintillating fiber roads excited by a Ruthenium source.
Tests of a fiber detector concept for high rate particle tracking
Recent reports of the detecting of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in ruthenium-cuprates have aroused great interest.
Direct Observation of Coexistence of Ferromagnetism and Superconductivity in RuSr2(Gd0.7Ce0.3)2Cu2O10
The antagonistic nature between ferromagnetism and superconductivity has long been recognized.1 By replacing the CuO-chain layers in the charge reservoir blocks of the cuprate high temperature superconductor with RuO2 layers, the ruthenium-cuprate compounds have been formed.
Direct Observation of Coexistence of Ferromagnetism and Superconductivity in RuSr2(Gd0.7Ce0.3)2Cu2O10
Although magnetic studies have unambiguously shown a weak ferromagnetic order below Tm , the superconducting transition below Ts has only been demonstrated by resistivity measurements in ruthenium-cuprate polycrystalline samples and without a bulk Meissner effect,7 the usual signature of a superconducting transition.
Direct Observation of Coexistence of Ferromagnetism and Superconductivity in RuSr2(Gd0.7Ce0.3)2Cu2O10
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