rumination

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n rumination regurgitation of small amounts of food; seen in some infants after feeding
    • n rumination (of ruminants) chewing (the cud) "ruminants have remarkable powers of rumination"
    • n rumination a calm, lengthy, intent consideration
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Rumination The act or process of ruminating, or chewing the cud; the habit of chewing the cud. "Rumination is given to animals to enable them at once to lay up a great store of food, and afterward to chew it."
    • Rumination (Physiol) The regurgitation of food from the stomach after it has been swallowed, -- occasionally observed as a morbid phenomenon in man.
    • Rumination The state of being disposed to ruminate or ponder; deliberate meditation or reflection. "Retiring full of rumination sad."
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n rumination The act or process of ruminating, or chewing the cud. The food of ruminants is entirely herbaceous, and consists chiefly of grass. This is rapidly cropped by grazing, and hastily swallowed, mixed with saliva. When its appetite is satisfied, the ruminant stands still, or oftener lies down, generally on its side. Then occurs a spasmodic action of the abdominal muscles and of the diaphragm, like a hiccup, which forces a bolus of grass, sodden in the fluids of the paunch, up the gullet and into the mouth, to be masticated or chewed at leisure. During this second chewing the cud is mixed with more saliva, thoroughly ground to pulp, and in this semi-fluid state it is finally swallowed. The cropped grass, when first swallowed, passes indifferently into either the rumen or the reticulum (which are in fact only two compartments of the cardiac division of the stomach, the gullet entering the stomach just at their junction), and in the ordinary peristaltic action of the stomach the fodder passes back and forth from one to the other. But there is an arrangement of muscular folds by means of which a canal may be formed that leads directly from the gullet past the rumen and reticulum into the psalterium, and by this channel the food, when returned after the rumination, may be conducted directly to the third stomach. Water drunk passes easily into any of the four stomachs according to circumstances. Neither the paunch nor the honeycomb is ever completely emptied of food; they have been found partly filled with sodden fodder in animals which have starved to death. It does not appear, as has been supposed, that the reticulum is specially concerned in modeling the boluses which are to be regurgitated. The regurgitation is effected by the reversed peristaltic action of the gullet. During the spasmodic action by which the sodden mass is driven against the opening of the gullet, and some of it forced into the gullet to be thrown up, it is prevented from passing into the psalterium partly by the narrowness of the opening between the reticulum and the psalterium, and partly by the resistance offered to the coarse mass by the close-pressed psalterial leaves or layers, which act like a fine grating. But when the mass is swallowed again in its now pulpifled and semifluid state, and is directed to the psalterium by the conformation of the parts, it readily soaks in through the psalterial layers, and thus reaches the abomasum or fourth stomach, where it is finally chymified by the action of the gastric juice, to which it is not before subjected. Rumination in man, when it is pathological, is also called merycism.
    • n rumination The act of ruminating or meditating; a musing or continued thinking on a subject; meditation or reflection.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Rumination act of chewing the cud: calm reflection
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Quotations

  • Friedrich Schlegel
    Friedrich%20Schlegel
    “A critic is a reader who ruminates. Thus, he should have more than one stomach.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. ruminatio,: cf. F. rumination,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. rumināre, -ātumrumen, the gullet.

Usage

In literature:

Dick Varley sat before the fire ruminating.
"The Dog Crusoe and His Master" by Robert Michael Ballantyne
During the afternoon he ruminated on how this was to be done.
"The Claim Jumpers" by Stewart Edward White
If we turn next to the Ruminants, the clean beasts which chew the cud and divide the hoof, the puzzle becomes harder still.
"Concerning Animals and Other Matters" by E.H. Aitken, (AKA Edward Hamilton)
Mr. Falkland contemplated this scene for a few moments, as if ruminating with himself as to what could be done.
"Caleb Williams" by William Godwin
While ruminating on the foregoing pages, a kind of vision passed before my mind.
"Lands of the Slave and the Free" by Henry A. Murray
These are things, however, upon which I have at present no leisure to ruminate.
"Facing the Flag" by Jules Verne
I leaned back in my corner next the door ruminating pleasantly.
"Green Tea; Mr. Justice Harbottle" by Joseph Sheridan LeFanu
Below him, outside the window at which he stood ruminating, he heard voices mingling with the storm.
"J. S. Le Fanu's Ghostly Tales, Volume 3" by Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu
Mr. Stobell, whose habit was taciturn and ruminative, fixed his dull brown eyes on the ground and thought it over.
"Dialstone Lane, Part 1." by W.W. Jacobs
Mr. Bodfish came back to his chair and ruminated.
"Cupboard Love" by W.W. Jacobs
We call the cow a ruminant because she chews the cud.
"Quiet Talks on Prayer" by S. D. (Samuel Dickey) Gordon
Ralston relapsed into a ruminating silence.
"The Lamp in the Desert" by Ethel M. Dell
It appears that for several weeks past Fred had been ruminating upon going to Canada, reviving as it were his former intentions.
"The Black-Sealed Letter" by Andrew Learmont Spedon
On the step of the stile that crosses the churchyard wall, near Malory, I sat down, in rather uncomfortable rumination.
"Willing to Die" by Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu
SOME OF THE RUMINANTS.
"The World and Its People: Book VII" by Anna B. Badlam
He ate the bread, and sat on the stile afterwards, ruminating.
"Trevlyn Hold" by Mrs. Henry Wood
She had leisure therefore to ruminate.
"Ormond, Volume I (of 3)" by Charles Brockden Brown
Ormond retired to ruminate on this discovery.
"Ormond, Volume II (of 3)" by Charles Brockden Brown
The fat, like that of all ruminating animals, becomes, on cooling, hard and brittle.
"A Treatise on Sheep:" by Ambrose Blacklock
A Ruminant is most frequently a large and heavy animal without the agility and litheness of the Carnivore.
"The Cambridge Natural History, Vol X., Mammalia" by Frank Evers Beddard
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In poetry:

Darkness crept slowly o'er the East!
Upon the Barn-roof watch'd the Cat;
Sweet breath'd the ruminating Beast
At rest where DOLLY musing sat.
"Dolly" by Robert Bloomfield
The lark went up, the mower whet his scythe,
On golden meads kine ruminating lay,
And all the world felt young again and blithe,
Just as to—day.
"Victoria" by Alfred Austin
He hears them breathing, softly, fearfully,
Honey-sweet ruminations, slow respired:
Then a sharp hiss breaks time and melody--
Spittle indrawn, old kisses new-desired.
"The Louse-Hunters" by Aldous Huxley
Abner. What meditation holds thee thus engaged,
O king! and keeps thine active spirit bound;
When busy war far other cares demands
Than ruminating thought and pale despair?
"David And Goliath. A Sacred Drama" by Hannah More
Wild on the summit of the steep
She ruminated long the deep,
And felt her freezing blood;
Approaching feet she heard behind,
Then swifter than the winged wind
She plunged into the flood.
"Monimia. An Ode" by John Logan
It is good to know, now that the bell strikes noon.
In this day's sun, the hedges are Episcopalian
As noon is marked by the twelve iron beats.
The rector moves ruminantly among the gravestones,
And the sound of a dead Europe hangs in the streets.
"The Bell From Europe" by Weldon Kees

In news:

(May 6, 2010) Ruminations and evolutionary psychology.
Norman Mailer Ruminates On Literature and Life.
Behind the scenes at Food Engineering for the past year, we have conducted focus groups with readers, monitored the best business magazine designs in America and ruminated about how to improve the publication you are now holding.
Here is more information on pinkeye from Dr Michelle Arnold, Large Ruminant Extension Veterinarian, University of Kentucky, that I wanted to share with you.
I can't help but ruminate on other recent product recalls and contamination problems from leaky roofs, nasty things found in lettuce fields and bad batch mixing.
Cataclysm inspires rumination, philosophy, regret, soul-searching -- the kind of thinking, in other words, that divides contemporary history into before and after.
Andy Cole, PhD, an expert on ruminant animal nutrition and production, was recognized for his professional achievements by the American Society of Animal Science this week.
Firkins, PhD, an expert on ruminant animal nutrition and production, was recognized for his professional achievements by the American Dairy Science Association.
Kentucky Small Ruminant Grazaing Conference.
Sunbury leaders ruminate aggregator's pitch.
Playwright-actor Claudia Shear made a hit at New York Theatre Workshop in 2000 with "Dirty Blonde," her fascinating rumination on the sultry film legend Mae West.
Rhubarb ruminations By Christine Hutkin PhillyBurbs.com.
In Brazil, the samba can be private or public, jazzy or blunt, a rumination or a pop song or a carnival parade.
Or for the burned-out, testy ruminations of a lover scorned .
If you're not already tossing and turning at night, ruminating over-and over-the items on your To Do list like so many lost sheep, along comes a report from Forrester Research calling your very survival into question.
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In science:

However, one might argue, these ruminations seem to have parted far from the domain of the Ising model in 3D, 4D, or anything else.
Conjectures on exact solution of three - dimensional (3D) simple orthorhombic Ising lattices
Now, following [Ru], we will construct a map dR : ΩN (d)/I N (d) → K N +1(d) that connects the complexes (6.18) and (6.19), which we will call the Rumin map.
Irreducible Modules over Finite Simple Lie Pseudoalgebras II. Primitive Pseudoalgebras of Type K
Using the Rumin map dR , we can combine the two complexes (6.18) and (6.19).
Irreducible Modules over Finite Simple Lie Pseudoalgebras II. Primitive Pseudoalgebras of Type K
First, we show that the members of the Rumin complex (6.7) are csp ¯d-modules.
Irreducible Modules over Finite Simple Lie Pseudoalgebras II. Primitive Pseudoalgebras of Type K
Rumin, Formes diff´erentiel les sur les vari´et´es de contact, J.
Irreducible Modules over Finite Simple Lie Pseudoalgebras II. Primitive Pseudoalgebras of Type K
Along the data obtained in this way, Begall et al. also studied the angles of almost 3000 body axes of wild ruminants (red deer and roe deer), obtained by direct field glass observations and by examining the prints left behind in show by resting or sleeping wild animals.
No alignment of cattle along geomagnetic field lines found
Certainly, not all our results can be compared with the results published in , where the orientation of the heads was not included in the evaluated data, while we undertook no observation of the behavior of wild ruminants or of cows under power lines .
No alignment of cattle along geomagnetic field lines found
In this case the universal cover of (M , J ) must be compact by Rumin’s pseudohermitian version of Myers’ theorem ([Rum]), and hence CRequivalent to the standard S 3 .
Rigidity of automorphisms and spherical CR structures
Rumin, Formes diff´erentiel les sur les vari´et´es de contact, J.
Rigidity of automorphisms and spherical CR structures
For instance, ruminants (for example the cow) and colobine monkeys (for example the langur) independently developed a fermentative foregut where cellulose is digested with the help of bacteria.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
Seshadri N., Some notes on analytic torsion of the Rumin complex on contact manifolds, arXiv:0704.1982 .
Future Directions of Research in Geometry: A Summary of the Panel Discussion at the 2007 Midwest Geometry Conference
MAS96], whereas a significant fraction of deer remain on their feet for 5 seconds or so until they collapse from loss of blood. In addition, ruminants (such as deer and goats) are more resistant to brain injury than humans because their pre-mating dominance rituals involve head butting [SHA02].
The Ballistic Pressure Wave Theory of Handgun Bullet Incapacitation
We are truly fortunate that a documented record of Einstein’s ruminations exists for this transitional period leading to the general theory of relativity.
Book Review: The Genesis of General Relativity
Lapidus, The Feynman Integral and Feynman’s Operational Calculus, Oxford University Press, 2000 45 John Allen Paulos, Beyond Numeracy: Ruminations of a Numbers Man, p. 196, Knopf.
The shadow interpretation versus quantum paradoxes
Following on Weyl’s speculations on the fundamental physical constants in 1919, and Eddington’s work from 1923 on (summarised in his book ) hoping to explain the numerical values of these constants,3 Dirac’s ruminations on the large number coincidences between these constants seem to have set the ball rolling.
Editorial note to "Large number coincidences and the anthropic principle in cosmology"
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