rubidium

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n rubidium a soft silvery metallic element of the alkali metal group; burns in air and reacts violently in water; occurs in carnallite and lepidolite and pollucite
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Rubidium (Chem) A rare metallic element of the alkali metal series, atomic number 37. It occurs quite widely, but in small quantities, and always combined. It is isolated as a soft yellowish white metal, analogous to potassium in most of its properties. Symbol Rb. Atomic weight, 85.48.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n rubidium Chemical symbol, Rb; atomic weight, 85.25. A metal belonging to the group of elements which includes lithium, sodium, potassium, and cæsium: so named from the reddish tint of its salts. It is very soft, is silver-white in color, has a specific gravity of 1.52, and melts at about 101° F. When thrown into water it burns, forming rubidium hydrate, RbOH. Rubidium was first detected by the spectroscope, together with cæsium, in the mineral water of Dürkheim, in which it exists to the amount of two parts in ten million. It has since been found in considerable quantity, together with cæsium and lithium, in several other saline waters, and most abundantly in that of Bourbonne-les-Bains in France. It is also found in several lepidolites: that of Rozena, in Moravia, contains 0.24 per cent. of rubidium, with only a trace of cæsium; that of Hebron, in the State of Maine, 0.24 per cent. of rubidium and 0.3 per cent. of cæsium. The two metals likewise occur, though in smaller quantity, in the lepidolite of Prague, the petalite of Uto in Finland, the lithia-mica of Zinnwald in the Erzgebirge, and other lithia minerals. It has been found also in the ashes of many plants, and in the saline or crude potash obtained from the residue of the beet-sugar manufacture. It has been found in tobacco-leaves, and in coffee, tea, cocoa, and crude tartar. In minerals and mineral waters rubidium and cæsium are always associated with lithium, and generally also with potassium and sodium; but plants have the power of assimilating two or three of these metals to the exclusion of the rest; thus, tea, coffee, and the saline of beetroot contain potassium, sodium, and rubidium, but not a trace of lithium.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Rubidium rōō-bid′i-um a soft silvery-white metallic element.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
NL., fr. L. rubidus, red, fr. rubere, to be red. So called from two dark red, spectroscopic lines by means of which it was discovered in the lepidolite from Rozena, Moravia. See Rubicund
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. rubidus, red.

Usage

In literature:

The "lithium spike" re-appears in potassium and rubidium.
"Occult Chemistry" by Annie Besant and Charles W. Leadbeater
This residue consists of sodium, potassium and lithium chlorides, with small quantities of caesium and rubidium chlorides.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Part 4" by Various
He picked up a shard of rubidium that served as a paper weight and toyed with it.
"The Stutterer" by R.R. Merliss
Thus Bunsen in 1860 discovered two new alkaline metals, Caesium and Rubidium.
"Logic, Inductive and Deductive" by William Minto
They contain also traces of arsenic, antimony, selenium, rubidium, tin and organic substances.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 3" by Various
Rubidium chlorid c. p., in 2-gram doses, proved inactive.
"Barium, A Cause of the Loco-Weed Disease" by Albert Cornelius Crawford
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In news:

Manhattan Isotope 's DMF submission initiates the protocol, procedures and compliance required to produce Sr-82 for radiopharmaceutical applications, specifically for commercial use in Sr-82/Rubidium (Rb)-82 generators.
Perhaps the time has come to rekindle our enthusiasm for PET rubidium imaging as the non-invasive study of choice for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease.
Positron, Jubilant DraxImage Collaborate on Supply of Strontium-82, Rubidium -82 Generators.
The Alpermann+Velte Rubidium Series 3 of time code products was built for easy set-up and configuration through a RS-232 serial port or Ethernet connection and any Internet browser via a PC or Apple Macintosh computer.
Is PET Rubidium -82 Imaging the Preferred Noninvasive Diagnostic Test.
Antelope Audio has introduced Rubicon , a 384kHz digital audio preamplifier which integrates the 10M Rubidium atomic clock, which is 100,000 times more stable than a traditional crystal oscillator.
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In science:

Gea-Banacloche, “Measurement of dispersive properties of electromagnetically induced transparency in Rubidium atoms,” Phys.
Narrow-Band Biphoton Generation near Atomic Resonance
We applied this idea with Raman gain between light-shifted Zeeman sublevels of rubidium atoms.
Threshold of a random laser based on Raman gain in cold atoms
The results are shown for rubidium-87 atoms.
Matter-wave analog of an optical random laser
The pulsed classical source S’ induces  pulses resonant with the |g|e transition in R1 and R2 (with relative phase r) on the velocity selected (v = 250 m/s) Rydberg atom qubits prepared by laser excitation from a Rubidium atomic beam in B.
Real-time quantum feedback prepares and stabilizes photon number states
It is now seventeen years since the first successful observation of BEC in Rubidium gas, cooled down to temperature in the nanoKelvin range 26,27 .
Supersolid phases of cold atom assemblies
Hereafter we consider a disorder potential characterized by an amplitude Vdis = 0.02Er , where the recoil energy Er = h2/(2mλ2 ) for each atom of mass m is defined with respect to the wavelength λ = 780 nm, characterizing the D2 hyperfine Rubidium transition.
Localization of an inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate in a moving random potential
An alternative interferometer to measure the photon recoil using laser cooled atoms in a single internal state was demonstrated using rubidium atoms .
Contrast Interferometry Using Bose-Einstein Condensates to Measure h/m and the Fine Structure Constant
First, the spin of an unpaired electron in vaporized rubidium is hyperpolarized by shining circularly polarized laser light on the D1 electronic transition of Rb.
Experimental Quantum Computation with Nuclear Spins in Liquid Solution
Clock-comparison experiments will be possible by measuring the beat frequency between oscillators of various types, including hydrogen masers, rubidium and cesium atomic clocks, and microwave-cavity oscillators.
Testing Relativity with Orbiting Oscillators
Species planned for flight on the ISS include rubidium 87, cesium 133, and hydrogen.
Testing Relativity with Orbiting Oscillators
The gases are placed into a population inverted state by collisions with a pumped vapor of rubidium.
Modern tests of Lorentz invariance
Their experimental observation can be considered as having been initiated by the first demonstration of an atom-molecule coupling in a rubidium BEC .
Formation and interactions of cold and ultracold molecules: new challenges for interdisciplinary physics
By making use of STIRAP, rubidium molecules produced through a Feshbach resonance in an optical lattice have been transferred to the secondto-last vibrational level (with a binding energy ≈500 MHz), with an efficiency of 87 % [213].
Formation and interactions of cold and ultracold molecules: new challenges for interdisciplinary physics
For rubidium, individual maser measurements are uncorrelated.
Tests of local position invariance using continuously running atomic clocks
Pethick, “Ground-state properties of magnetically trapped Bose-condensed rubidium gas,” University of Illinois preprint (1995).
Methods for a Nonuniform Bose Gas
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