• WordNet 3.6
    • n roughness harsh or severe speech or behavior "men associate the roughness of nonstandard working-class speech with masculinity","the roughness of her voice was a signal to keep quiet"
    • n roughness an unpolished unrefined quality "the crudeness of frontier dwellings depressed her"
    • n roughness a texture of a surface or edge that is not smooth but is irregular and uneven
    • n roughness the quality of being unpleasant (harsh or rough or grating) to the senses
    • n roughness the formation of small pits in a surface as a consequence of corrosion
    • n roughness rowdy behavior
    • n roughness used of the sea during inclement or stormy weather
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: There are are roughly 100 million single adults living in the USA
    • n Roughness The quality or state of being rough.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: A caterpillar grows roughly 27,000 times its size when it first emerges as an egg
    • n roughness The state or property of being rough, in any sense of that word; physical, mental, or moral want of smoothness or equability; asperity, coarseness, harshness, rudeness, etc.
    • n roughness Fodder for animals, consisting of dried cornstalks cut into short pieces.
    • n roughness Synonyms See rough.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The human heart beast roughly 35 million times a year
    • ns Roughness crudeness: rawness: harshness: asperity: physical or mental rudeness: :
    • ns Roughness (U.S.) fodder consisting of dried corn-stalks
    • ns Roughness (Scot.) plenty, esp. of food
    • ***


  • George Meredith
    “Caricature is rough truth.”
  • Rupert Brooke
    Rupert Brooke
    “The cool kindliness of sheets, that soon smooth away trouble; and the rough male kiss of blankets.”
  • S. C. Hall
    S. C. Hall
    “Some men demand rough treatment everywhere!”
  • Philip L. Graham
    Philip L. Graham
    “News is the first rough draft of history.”
  • Source Unknown
    Source Unknown
    “It's when things get rough and you don't quit that success comes.”
  • Archbishop Derek Worlock
    Archbishop Derek Worlock
    “I am my brother's keeper, and he's sleeping pretty rough these days.”


Diamond in the rough - A diamond in the rough is someone or something that has great potential, but isn't not refined and polished.
Hit rough weather - If you hit rough weather, you experience difficulties or problems.
Rough and ready - If something is rough and ready, it has not been carefully prepared, but is fit for its purpose. If a person is rough and ready, they are not very refined or mannered.
Rough around the edges - If someone is rough around the edges, they haven't mastered something, though they show promise.
Rough diamond - A rough diamond is a person who might be a bit rude but who is good underneath it all.
Rough edges - If something has rough edges, it is still not a finished product and not all of a uniform standard.
Rough end of the stick - To get the rough end of the stick is to be treated unfairly or to come off worse than the other party in a transaction, situation or relationship.
Rough patch - A rough patch is a difficult or trying period.
Rough-hewn - If something, especially something made from wood or stone, is rough-hewn, it is unfinished or unpolished.
Take the rough with the smooth - People say that you have to take the rough with the smooth, meaning that you have to be prepared to accept the disadvantages as well of the advantages of something.


Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
A.S. rúh, rough; Ger. rauch, rauh, Dut. ruig.


In literature:

The young plants are pinched when there are two rough leaves.
"The Culture of Vegetables and Flowers From Seeds and Roots, 16th Edition" by Sutton and Sons
Again a group of cowboys arrived, jesting and roughing their mounts.
"The Ridin' Kid from Powder River" by Henry Herbert Knibbs
Thousands of men were in the one straight street, a roughly dressed, excited throng, gold-bitten, eager, and open-handed.
"The Furnace of Gold" by Philip Verrill Mighels
They passed down a rough rock path with ragged yellow sides, and stood suddenly looking out, as it seemed, on death.
"Carette of Sark" by John Oxenham
Colonel Wood's column was the left column and was composed of the Rough Riders only.
"The Colored Regulars in the United States Army" by T. G. Steward
The Indians put the horses to a trot and immediately the discomfort of her position was made agony by the rough motion.
"The Heart of the Desert" by Honoré Willsie Morrow
Next day six hours, over volcanic tufa; very rough.
"The Last Journals of David Livingstone, in Central Africa, from 1865 to His Death, Volume II (of 2), 1869-1873" by David Livingstone
Several people were waiting, among them four or five rough-looking miners, probably spies.
"The Disentanglers" by Andrew Lang
The great rough Montenegrin was so touched at hearing the words of his master and lord, that he turned away his head and sobbed.
"The Land of the Black Mountain" by Reginald Wyon
Yet I went over the rough surface again before retracing my steps down to the room below.
"My Lady of Doubt" by Randall Parrish
Basaltic hatchet grooved in the middle; quite rough.
"Illustrated Catalogue Of The Collections Obtained From The Indians Of New Mexico And Arizona In 1879" by James Stevenson
Two mighty pine-trees, roughly squared and built into the walls, extend from side to side across the belfry.
"Sketches and Studies in Italy and Greece, Complete" by John Symonds
He had held his own in many a rough-and-tumble bout.
"Steve Yeager" by William MacLeod Raine
It is made with a rough, solid wooden frame, of which the front and back parts are semicircular.
"Alone with the Hairy Ainu" by A. H. Savage Landor
A number of famous groups of statuary were there, but of course very much in the rough.
"Down the Columbia" by Lewis R. Freeman
This is your first day on the hill, mind, and a rough one it is.
"From Squire to Squatter" by Gordon Stables
A rough table stood opposite the window, and behind the table was a wooden bench.
"The Bushranger's Secret" by Mrs. Henry Clarke
Soon afterwards the Persian frontier is crossed, the hills increase considerably in size, and mud was exchanged for firm, rough gravel.
"Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan, Volume I (of 2)" by Isabella L. Bird
The stock stampeded but the herders stayed with them, riding full speed over all sorts of rough country.
"Cattle-Ranch to College" by Russell Doubleday
These green spokes are rough and hairy, and you will recognise this plant by these rough spokes.
"Flowers Shown to the Children" by C. E. Smith

In poetry:

"Gin ye be Annie of Rough Royal--
And I trust ye are not she--
Now tell me some of the love-tokens
That past between you and me."
"Love Gregor; Or, The Lass Of Lochroyan" by Andrew Lang
Thou dream, O blessed dream!
Spread far and near thy veil of haze,
Tone down the lines so sharp,
Make smooth what roughness seems.
"Thou Blessed Dream" by Swami Vivekananda
But we soon got used to freedom,
Though the way at first was rough;
But we weathered through the tempest,
For slavery made us tough.
"The Deliverance" by Frances Ellen Watkins
Go, little girl, your course pursue,
On life's rough ocean safely glide,
May want nor woe e'er visit you,
Nor any other ills betide.
"To A Little Girl" by Thomas Frederick Young
Grass begins to grow,
Dandelions come;
Snowdrops haste to go
After last month's snow;
Rough winds beat and blow,
Blossom on the plum.
"March" by Nora Jane Hopper Chesson
Ah, thou dost lead me, God!
But it is dark and starless, the way dreary;
Almost I sleep, I am so very weary
Upon this rough hill-road.
"I Would I Were A Child" by George MacDonald

In news:

Rough few days in the heart of Texas.
It's been a rough week.
As US special forces assaulted Osama bin Laden's walled compound in Pakistan, a Twitter user was already recording a rough outline of the events to come.
Values on tractors in rough shape.
After all, the band had a pretty rough couple of years following the 2009 death of drummer Jimmy "The Rev" Sullivan.
Talk about a rough way to wake up.
It appears that Whitney Houston had a rough night after leaving a Grammy event in Los Angeles on Thursday (Feb.
The road to this point was rough.
Rough winter weather increases your risk of being in a car accident by 36 percent, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Grilled beef is served by weight for about $25 a kilogram (or roughly $11 a pound).
Food Cart Reviews Our club-wielding ancestors would have a rough time making chicken tenders the Cultured Caveman way.
You know the last year was a rough one for the economy.
Williams had a rough childhood.
Mediocrity a rough road for the Sox.
The process of asking California courts to revisit old sentences could take as long as two years and benefit roughly 3,000 prisoners.

In science:

The predicted signal efficiency is roughly 4% and the background level is roughly 10%, with both numbers improving near the vertical and degrading near the horizon.
Physics and Operation of the AMANDA-II High Energy Neutrino Telescope
Here tH is the Hubble time and the factor 1/4 multiplying fπ is due to the fact that in photoproduction of pions charged and neutral pions are created with roughly equal probability, and when a charged pion decays roughly half its energy is carried by muon neutrinos.
High energy cosmic-rays: puzzles, models, and giga-ton neutrino telescopes
Such a constraint may lead to a rough standard GRB energy and an event rate roughly consistent with the true GRB event rate after collimation corrections91,8 .
Gamma-Ray Bursts: Progress, Problems & Prospects
The results of H1 are in rough agreement with recent data from CLEO and Belle, taken at at 10.5 and 10.6 GeV, corresponding roughly to the average energy of the system at H1.
Heavy Quarks: Summary Report
To roughly estimate what mass Ceres or 2003 UB313would have to have to clear their orbital neighborhoods, one can examine the spacing of the “true planets” in terms of their Hill radii (the “Hill sphere” is defined roughly as the size of the region around a planet where its gravity dominates that of the central star).
Planetesimals To Brown Dwarfs: What is a Planet?
The median completion rates are roughly equal for the high-priority programs, largely due to the roughly one to four instrument changes per dark run.
Ten Year Review of Queue Scheduling of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope
The main reason is that the s-wave selfenergy of the mesons goes roughly as the meson mass, from the Weinberg Tomozawa interaction, while the p-wave scales differently, roughly like the baryon mass.
Charm and hidden charm scalar mesons in the nuclear medium
An expected number of observed anti-neutrino is roughly 5 000 per day and roughly 100 per day in the near detector and far detector, respectively.
Summary of the 3rd International Workshop on a Far Detector in Korea for the J-PARC Beam
In this limit, the structure function is roughly constant and the angular spectrum is roughly proportional to l -1 .
Statistics of Galactic Synchrotron and Dust Foregrounds: Spectra, PDFs and Higher-Order Moments
The inset shows the directional variation of the magnetic field at a fixed height of d = 0.6 µm and for a fixed wire thickness of h = 0.1 µm, where we plot the influence of edge roughness (solid curve) and surface roughness (dashed curve) over a wide range of wire widths w.
Nanowire atomchip traps for sub-micron atom-surface distances
For example, the W +hf cross section systematic is 30% of the W +hf background, but because the background is roughly 50% of the total background in the τ ν bb channel, the effective systematic is roughly 15%.
Tests of the Standard Electroweak Model at the Energy Frontier
Er=299 keV: Gp from measured (p,g) strength; Gg=0.5 eV is a rough estimate; rough upper limit for Ga is then obtained using Ga/Gg<0.08 from Ross et al. 1995.
Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: III. Nuclear Physics Input
In order to make the comparison as robust as possible, we propose a filter set logarithmic in wavelength, with 7 bands: 4 bands in the visible channel, corresponding roughly to g,r,i and z from the SDSS system (Fukugita et al. 1996), and 3 bands on the NIR channel roughly matching y, J and H.
Dark energy constraints from a space-based supernova survey
Rough heuristics Let us give a rough heuristic about what to expect.
Upper tails of self-intersection local times of random walks: survey of proof techniques
For β3 = 2.1, the orbit extends out to roughly four times the radius of the gauge field core, while for β3 = 2.2 the maximal radius is only roughly twice that of the gauge field core.
Detection of cosmic superstrings by geodesic test particle motion