root

Definitions

  • He wuz rooted to the spot
    He wuz rooted to the spot
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v root take root and begin to grow "this plant roots quickly"
    • v root cause to take roots
    • v root become settled or established and stable in one's residence or life style "He finally settled down"
    • v root dig with the snout "the pig was rooting for truffles"
    • v root plant by the roots
    • v root come into existence, originate "The problem roots in her depression"
    • n root the part of a tooth that is embedded in the jaw and serves as support
    • n root (linguistics) the form of a word after all affixes are removed "thematic vowels are part of the stem"
    • n root a simple form inferred as the common basis from which related words in several languages can be derived by linguistic processes
    • n root the set of values that give a true statement when substituted into an equation
    • n root the place where something begins, where it springs into being "the Italian beginning of the Renaissance","Jupiter was the origin of the radiation","Pittsburgh is the source of the Ohio River","communism's Russian root"
    • n root someone from whom you are descended (but usually more remote than a grandparent)
    • n root (botany) the usually underground organ that lacks buds or leaves or nodes; absorbs water and mineral salts; usually it anchors the plant to the ground
    • n root a number that, when multiplied by itself some number of times, equals a given number
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Arrow-root Arrow-root
Root and section of hair Root and section of hair

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The word "umbrella" is derived from the Latin root word "umbra", which means shade or shadow
    • Root A primitive form of speech; one of the earliest terms employed in language; a word from which other words are formed; a radix, or radical.
    • Root An ancestor or progenitor; and hence, an early race; a stem.
    • Root An edible or esculent root, especially of such plants as produce a single root, as the beet, carrot, etc.; as, the root crop.
    • Root Hence, to seek for favor or advancement by low arts or groveling servility; to fawn servilely.
    • Root That factor of a quantity which when multiplied into itself will produce that quantity; thus, 3 is a root of 9, because 3 multiplied into itself produces 9; 3 is the cube root of 27.
    • Root That which resembles a root in position or function, esp. as a source of nourishment or support; that from which anything proceeds as if by growth or development; as, the root of a tooth, a nail, a cancer, and the like.
    • Root The cause or occasion by which anything is brought about; the source.
    • Root (Bot) The descending, and commonly branching, axis of a plant, increasing in length by growth at its extremity only, not divided into joints, leafless and without buds, and having for its offices to fix the plant in the earth, to supply it with moisture and soluble matters, and sometimes to serve as a reservoir of nutriment for future growth. A true root, however, may never reach the ground, but may be attached to a wall, etc., as in the ivy, or may hang loosely in the air, as in some epiphytic orchids.
    • Root The fundamental tone of any chord; the tone from whose harmonics, or overtones, a chord is composed.
    • Root The lowest place, position, or part.
    • Root (Astrol) The time which to reckon in making calculations. "When a root is of a birth yknowe [known]."
    • Root (Bot) The underground portion of a plant, whether a true root or a tuber, a bulb or rootstock, as in the potato, the onion, or the sweet flag.
    • Root To be firmly fixed; to be established. "If any irregularity chanced to intervene and to cause misappehensions, he gave them not leave to root and fasten by concealment."
    • Root To fix the root; to enter the earth, as roots; to take root and begin to grow. "In deep grounds the weeds root deeper."
    • Root To plant and fix deeply in the earth, or as in the earth; to implant firmly; hence, to make deep or radical; to establish; -- used chiefly in the participle; as, rooted trees or forests; rooted dislike.
    • v. i Root To shout for, or otherwise noisly applaud or encourage, a contestant, as in sports; hence, to wish earnestly for the success of some one or the happening of some event, with the superstitious notion that this action may have efficacy; -- usually with for; as, the crowd rooted for the home team.
    • Root To tear up by the root; to eradicate; to extirpate; -- with up out, or away. "I will go root away the noisome weeds.""The Lord rooted them out of their land . . . and cast them into another land."
    • v. t Root To turn up or to dig out with the snout; as, the swine roots the earth.
    • Root To turn up the earth with the snout, as swine.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Dandelion root can be roasted and ground as a coffee substitute
    • n root In botany, a part of the body of a plant which, typically, grows downward into the soil, fixes the plant, and absorbs nutriment. A root may be either a descending axis originating in germination from the lower end of the caulicle, and persisting as a tap-root, or one of a group of such roots—in either case called primary; or a branch of such a root, the ultimate ramifications forming rootlets or root-fibrils; or a similar organ developed from some other part of the plant (adventitious), sometimes with special functions—in the latter cases called secondary. The root differs from the stem in having no nodes and internodes, its branches appearing in no regular order, and, normally, in giving rise to no other organs, though, as in the pear and poplar, it may develop buds and thence suckers. In mode of growth the root is peculiar in elongating only or chiefly at the extremity, and at the same time in not building upon the naked apex, but in a stratum (the growing-point) just short of the apex under the protection of a cover or sheath—the root-cap (which see). Aside from securing the plant in position, the ordinary function of roots is the absorption of water with nutritive matter in solution from the soil, or, in the case of aquatics, wholly or partly from the water. This office is performed by imbibition through the cell-walls of the fresher root-surface, except that of the extreme tip, the absorbent surface being greatly increased by the production of root-hairs. (See root-hair.) Many roots, however—chiefly the tap-roots of biennials—serve the special purpose of storing nutriment for a second season, becoming thus much enlarged, as in the beet and turnip. Roots of this class must be distinguished from the rhizome, bulb, etc., which, though subterranean, are modifications of the stem. Numerous plants put forth aërial roots, eventually reaching the soil (banian, mangrove), serving as means of climbing (ivy, poison-ivy), or, in the case of epiphytes, part fastening the plant to a bough, part free in the air, whence they are capable of absorbing some moisture. The roots of a parasitic plant penetrate the tissues of the host-plant and draw their nutritive matter from it. True roots are confined to flowering plants and vascular cryptogams, the rhizoids of many lower plants in part taking their place. See annual, biennial, perennial. See also cuts under ivy, monocotyledonous, prothallium, and rhizome.
    • n root Specifically, an esculent root, as a beet or a carrot.
    • n root That which resembles a root in shape, position, or function; that from which anything springs. The part of anything that resembles the root of a plant in manner of growth, or as a source of nourishment, support, or origin; specifically, in anatomy and zoology, some part or organ like or likened to the root of a plant; the deepest or most fixed part of something embedded in another; a base, bottom, or supporting part: technically called radix: as, the root of a finger-nail or a tooth; the root of a nerve or a hair: often used in the plural, though the thing in fact is singular: as, to drag out a nail by the roots.
    • n root Hence— The bottom or lower part of anything; foundation.
    • n root The origin or cause of anything; source.
    • n root The basis of anything; ground; support.
    • n root In philology, an elementary notional syllable; that part of a word which conveys its essential meaning, as distinguished from the formative parts by which this meaning is modified; an element in a language, whether arrived at by analysis of words or existing uncombined, in which no formative element is demonstrable: thus, true may be regarded as the root of un-tru-th-ful-ness.
    • n root The first ancestor; an early progenitor.
    • n root In mathematics: The root of any quantity is such a quantity as, when multiplied into itself a certain number of times, will exactly produce that quantity. Thus, 2 is a root of 4, because when multiplied into itself it exactly produces 4. Power and root are correlative terms: the power is named from the number of the factors employed in the multiplication, and the root is named from the power. Thus, if a quantity be multiplied once by itself, the product is called the second power, or square, and the quantity itself the square root, or second root of the product; if the quantity be multiplied twice by itself, we obtain the third power, or cube, and the quantity is the cube root or third root; and so on. The character marking a root is √ (a modification of r for radix, which has been used probably since the middle of the sixteenth century), and the particular root is indicated by placing above the sign the figure which expresses the number of the root, which figure is called the index of the root. Thus, √16 indicates the fourth root of 16 (that is, 2), and √4 the square root of 4 (that is, 2)—the index in the case of the square root being usually omitted. The same is the case with algebraic quantities, as √ (a + 3ab + 3ab + b) = a + b. See power, index, involution, evolution. The root of an equation is a quantity which, substituted for the unknown quantity, satisfies the equation: thus, 2 + √2 is a root of the equation x—5x + 6x—2 = 0; for the sum of which is 0. Another root of the same equation is obviously 1; and the third root will be found to be 2—√2.
    • n root In music: With reference to a compound tone or a series of harmonics, the fundamental, generator, or ground tone. With reference to a chord, the fundamental tone—that is, the tone from whose harmonics the tones of the chord are selected, or the tone on which they are conceived to be built up. Theorists are not agreed as to what constitutes a root of a chord, or whether a chord may have two roots; and in many cases the term is used merely to designate the lowest tone of a chord when arranged in its simplest or normal position.
    • n root In chronology, the earliest time at which an event can take place, as a movable feast; also, the time at which any progressive change begins.
    • n root In astrology, the state of things at the beginning of any time; particularly, the figure of the heavens at the instant of birth, specifically called the root of nativity, a term also applied to the horoscope, or ascendant. Chaucer, in the passage below, has in mind the introduction to Zahel's treatise on Elections, where it is stated that elections of fortunate times for undertakings are not much to be depended upon, except in the case of kings, who have their roots of nativity (that is, in their case there is no doubt as to the precise aspect of the heavens at the moment of birth), which roots strengthen the inferences to be drawn, especially (at least so Chaucer understands the words) in the case of a journey. When the horoscope of birth was not known, astrologers were accustomed to determine elections chiefly by the place and phase of the moon, whose influence was, however, considered debile. It appears that in the case of the lady of the story, the moon was impedited in the root of nativity (see Almansor, Prop. 35: “Cum in radice nativitatis impedietur luna,” etc.), and Mars, a planet most unfavorable to journeys, was at azir, or lord of the ascendant, at her birth, and was in the fourth, or darkest, house; so that the omens of the journey were as gloomy as they well could be.
    • n root In hydraulic engineering, the end of a weir or dam where it is joined to the natural bank.
    • n root In horticulture, a growing plant with its root; also, a tuber or bulb.
    • n root Gross amount; sum total.
    • n root In English history, the extremists of the Parliamentary party who about 1641 favored the overthrow of Episcopacy; also, the policy of these extremists.
    • n root To become fixed; become established.
    • n root (See also bloodroot, bowman's-root, cancer-root, colic-root, musk-root, orris-root, rattlesnake-root, and snakeroot.)
    • root To fix the root; strike root; enter the earth, as roots.
    • root To be firmly fixed; be established.
    • root To fix by the root or as if by roots; plant and fix deep in the earth: as, a tree roots itself; a deeply rooted tree.
    • root To plant deeply; impress deeply and durably: used chiefly in the past participle.
    • root To dig or burrow in with the snout; turn up with the snout, as a swine.
    • root To tear up or out as if by rooting; eradicate; extirpate; remove or destroy utterly; exterminate: generally with up, out, or away.
    • root To turn up the earth with the snout, as swine.
    • root To push with the snout.
    • n root A form of rut.
    • root A dialectal form of rot.
    • n root In mech., the part of a gear-tooth where it joins the rim of the wheel; the base of a tooth.
    • n root The sweet-flag.
    • root To work hard for the success of some person or thing: as, to root for one's party (at an election); specifically, in base-ball, etc., to exert oneself for the success of one's side, usually by uproarious applause intended partly to disconcert the other side.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: In 1976, the first eight Jelly Belly® flavors were launched: Orange, Green Apple, Root Beer, Very Cherry, Lemon, Cream Soda, Grape, and Licorice.
    • n Root rōōt the part of a plant which is fixed in the earth, and which draws up sap from the soil: an edible root: anything like a root, a growing plant together with its root: the bottom: a word from which others are derived: the cause, occasion, or basis of anything: the source: the lowest place: the first ancestor, or progenitor:
    • v.i Root to fix the root: to be firmly established: to tear up: to eradicate: to exterminate
    • v.t Root to plant in the earth: to implant deeply
    • v.t Root rōōt to turn up with the snout
    • v.i Root to turn up the earth with the snout
    • n Root rōōt (math.) the factor of a quantity which multiplied by itself produces that quantity: any value of the unknown quantity in an equation which will render both sides of it identical
    • ***

Quotations

  • American Proverb
    American Proverb
    “The love of evil is the root of all money.”
  • Alex Haley
    Alex Haley
    “Roots is not just a saga of my family. It is the symbolic saga of a people.”
  • Mira Bai
    Mira Bai
    “I went to the root of things, and found nothing but Him alone.”
  • Ernest Dimnet
    Ernest Dimnet
    “Ideas are the roots of creation.”
  • Søren Kierkegaard
    Søren Kierkegaard
    “Far from idleness being the root of all evil, it is rather the only true good.”
  • Hodding Carter
    Hodding Carter
    “There are only two lasting bequests we can hope to give our children. One of these is roots, the other, wings.”

Idioms

Grass roots - This idioms is often used in politics, where it refers to the ordinary people or voters. It can be used to mean people at the bottom of a hierarchy.
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Root hog or die poor - (USA) It's a expression used in the Southern USA that means that you must look out for yourself as no one's going to do it for you. (It can be shortened to 'root hog'. A hog is a pig.)
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Rooted to the spot - If someone is rooted to the spot, they canot move, either physically or they cannot think their way out of a problem.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
AS. wrōtan,; akin to wrōt, a snout, trunk, D. wroeten, to root, G. rüssel, snout, trunk, proboscis, Icel. rōta, to root, and perhaps to L. rodere, to gnaw (E. rodent,) or to E. root, n
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Scand.; Ice. rót; Dan. rod; Goth. waurts, A.S. wyrt.

Usage

In literature:

MR. JONES: What About rooting these and then transplanting.
"Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Eleventh Annual Meeting" by Various
His feet were rooted.
"The Rich Little Poor Boy" by Eleanor Gates
In transplanting, be sure to expose the roots as little as possible to the sun or drying winds.
"Making a Garden of Perennials" by W. C. Egan
The female opossum builds a warm nest of dry leaves and moss, sometimes in the hollow of a rotten tree, or beneath its wide-spreading roots.
"The Western World" by W.H.G. Kingston
And as for starving, are not these luxuriant woods filled with roots and fruits that will sustain life a long while?
"The Forest Exiles" by Mayne Reid
Although the grass itself is consumed, the roots strike deep; and it springs up anew, overrunning the dead sage-brush.
"Life at Puget Sound: With Sketches of Travel in Washington Territory, British Columbia, Oregon and California" by Caroline C. Leighton
One day he went down on the Graybull flat to dig some roots that his Mother had taught him were good.
"The Biography of a Grizzly" by Ernest Thompson Seton
In both cases, the roots must be eradicated.
"The Book of Sports:" by William Martin
Could the sun get down to places where you found wild roots?
"The Tree-Dwellers" by Katharine Elizabeth Dopp
Harry is Honest Root-gatherer, and he is Francis le Vean.
"Last Words" by Juliana Horatia Ewing
Now Farwell was a bachelor, rooted and confirmed.
"Desert Conquest" by A. M. Chisholm
The piece-root method is allowable only when the root is long and strong, so that a well-rooted plant results the first year.
"The Apple-Tree" by L. H. Bailey
The pull of the roots is much greater to one side than downward, because most of the longest roots extend sidewise.
"Seed Dispersal" by William J. Beal
The long tapering "root" is often attached to some underground dead root.
"Studies of American Fungi. Mushrooms, Edible, Poisonous, etc." by George Francis Atkinson
Yet as I turned over his pages I was amazed at the similarity of the I. E. roots to the Dak roots.
"The Dakotan Languages, and Their Relations to Other Languages" by Andrew Woods Williamson
The Hebrew word for holiness possibly comes from a root that means to separate.
"Holy in Christ" by Andrew Murray
Mrs. Brown, Mrs. Martha E. Root and Miss Mary Desha.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume IV" by Various
The natural appetites are inherited instincts the roots of which lie far back in the phylogenetic history of our ancestors.
"The Sexual Question" by August Forel
Roots, roots, up they came, as though they'd just been waiting, down there deep inside of me, for that girl and her hoeing.
"The Harbor" by Ernest Poole
Cut off the ends of large roots, to encourage the growth of numerous fibrous roots.
"Soil Culture" by J. H. Walden
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In poetry:

Sin has been the cause of all!
'Twas not thus before the fall:
What but pain, and thorn, and sting,
From the root of sin can spring?
"Vanity Of The Creature Sanctified" by John Newton
Wisest the man who does his best,
And leaves the rest
To Him who counts not deeds alone,
But sees the root, the flower, the fruit,
And calls them one.
"Profit And Loss" by John Oxenham
The comfort-whispering showers
That thrill with gratefulness my youngest shoot!
The children playing round my deep-sunk root,
Green-caved from burning hours!
"The Tree's Prayer" by George MacDonald
But as he dug and drew it from the ground,
Strange glitterings upon his hands he found;
For to its roots clung dust of golden hue;
The flower grew
On golden treasure!
"Lector Thaasen" by Bjornstjerne Bjornson
And the quick words, swathed in their music, drop
Like summer blossoms left by fickle winds,
And, taking root, spring up and flower, like hope
In human hearts and minds:
"The Poet" by Alexander Anderson
You are the blessing on my baneful way,
When life has depths worse than disease can reach,
And courage is the only root of beauty,
And it is this that draws us each to each.
"Autumn" by Boris Pasternak

In news:

Toronto trio Elliott Brood bring their stomping indie-roots-rock to the KEXP studio for a rousing live set.
Nicholas Root, 6, of Pennellville, holds up a nice batch of brook trout he caught during a recent family vacation at Old Forge.
The youngster was fishing with his dad, Mike Root, at the time.
Timeless Design with Historical Roots.
Proposition 13 and the Roots of California's Budgetary Problems.
Bungalow celebrates Arts and Crafts roots.
Check out some dark and slow-stomping indie-roots with Seattle singer-songwriter Jeremy Burk .
Irey yard rooted in sustainability.
Century farm near Roscoe returning to prairie roots.
15 pm Roots of Music.
The Mexican explains Mexican cuisine and roots for traditional cacao .
Dozens of London Olympians have Southland roots.
Royal wedding site's Catholic roots.
Lotus-root stir-fry with brown sauce.
The minds behind such beloved blogs as My New Roots and Gluten-Free Girl share their favorite warm-weather dishes.
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In science:

We also take a set of simple roots Π0 ⊂ ∆0 and a root γ ∈ ∆1 such that the system Π0 ∪ {γ } is a set of simple roots for ∆.
Moore-Penrose inverse, parabolic subgroups, and Jordan pairs
The Bruhat decomposition for G(Kd ) implies that L is generated by the group H , the root subgroups in the ‘loop group’ G(Kd ) associated to the real affine root whose root subspace in g ⊗ Kd is contained in g0 , and the elements in NGd (H × C× δ ) fixing (1, µd ) and (s, τ 1/d ).
Induced and simple modules of double affine Hecke algebras
In general, this root lattice is an automorphism of the original root lattice of the same kind, obtained by a permutation of the roots.
Random matrix theory and symmetric spaces
In these equations the products denoted Qα∈R+ are over all the positive roots of the restricted root lattice and mα is the multiplicity of the root α.
Random matrix theory and symmetric spaces
Since we are mainly interested in rooted trees, we extend our definition as follows: A rooted R-tree, (X, d, ρ), is an R-tree (X, d) with a distinguished point ρ ∈ X that we call the root.
Rayleigh processes, real trees, and root growth with re-grafting
The tree (T , ρ) is a rooted Gromov-Hausdorff limit of finite R-trees with root ρ (indeed, any subtree spanned by a finite ε-net and ρ is finite and has rooted Gromov-Hausdorff distance less than ε from (T , ρ)).
Rayleigh processes, real trees, and root growth with re-grafting
Let T be a finite rooted tree with root ρ and metric d, and let T ′ and T ′′ be two rooted subtrees of T (both with the induced metrics and root ρ).
Rayleigh processes, real trees, and root growth with re-grafting
These Lie algebras are characterized by the existence of a symmetric nondegenerate invariant bilinear form, a finite dimensional Cartan subalgebra, a discrete root system which contains some nonisotropic roots, and the ad-nilpotency of the root spaces attached to non-isotropic roots.
Generalized reductive Lie algberas
To count these trees we use a known method (see, e.g., ) for relating labeled unrooted trees of various types to rooted trees: we subtract the edge-rooted versions from the vertex-rooted versions.
A triple lacunary generating function for Hermite polynomials
In the second line we used that each root α is paired with a negative root −α, and the zero roots do not contribute.
String Theory and the Vacuum Structure of Confining Gauge Theories
This along with the description of roots and coroots of M given above implies that the root datum of M can be written as a direct sum of two root data.
Generic Transfer for General Spin Groups
Conjugation by the element w ′ sends each positive root group with root in Σ(θ)+ − Σ(Ω)+ to a root group corresponding to a negative root and sends those with roots in Σ(Ω)+ to themselves.
Generic Transfer for General Spin Groups
Given a Lie algebra g, we fix a Cartan subalgebra h. ∆ is the set of roots of g, ∆+ the positive roots, Π the set of simple roots, etc.
Constructing Graded Lie Algebras
The roots form a lattice in the space dual to the Cartan subalgebra. A subset of the positive roots span the root lattice.
Lectures on random matrix theory and symmetric spaces
Example: If the restricted root lattice is of type CN with long and ordinary roots, the positive roots are {ei ± ej , 2ei}.
Lectures on random matrix theory and symmetric spaces
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