retrograde

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • adj retrograde of amnesia; affecting time immediately preceding trauma
    • adj retrograde moving or directed or tending in a backward direction or contrary to a previous direction
    • adj retrograde moving from east to west on the celestial sphere; or--for planets--around the sun in a direction opposite to that of the Earth
    • adj retrograde going from better to worse
    • v retrograde get worse or fall back to a previous condition
    • v retrograde go back over "retrograde arguments"
    • v retrograde move back "The glacier retrogrades"
    • v retrograde move in a direction contrary to the usual one "retrograding planets"
    • v retrograde move backward in an orbit, of celestial bodies
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Retrograde (Astron) Apparently moving backward, and contrary to the succession of the signs, that is, from east to west, as a planet. "And if he be in the west side in that condition, then is he retrograde ."
    • Retrograde Declining from a better to a worse state; as, a retrograde people; retrograde ideas, morals, etc.
    • Retrograde Hence, to decline from a better to a worse condition, as in morals or intelligence.
    • Retrograde Tending or moving backward; having a backward course; contrary; as, a retrograde motion; -- opposed to progressive. "Progressive and not retrograde .""It is most retrograde to our desire."
    • Retrograde To go in a retrograde direction; to move, or appear to move, backward, as a planet.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • retrograde To go backward; move backward.
    • retrograde To fall back or away; lose ground; decline; deteriorate; degenerate.
    • retrograde In astronomy, to move westward relatively to the fixed stars.
    • retrograde In biology, to undergo retrogression, as a plant or an animal; be retrograde or retrogressive; develop a less from a more complex organization; degenerate.
    • retrograde To cause to go backward; turn back.
    • retrograde Moving backward; having a backward motion or direction; retreating.
    • retrograde Specifically, in astronomy, moving backward and contrary to the order of the signs relatively to the fixed stars: opposed to direct. The epithet does not apply to the diurnal motion, since this is not relative to the fixed stars.
    • retrograde In biology, characterized by or exhibiting degeneration or deterioration, as an organism or any of its parts which passes or has passed from a higher or more complex to a lower or simpler structure or composition; noting such change of organization: as, retrograde metamorphosis or development; a retrograde theory.
    • retrograde In zoology, habitually walking or swimming backward, as many animals: correlated with laterigrade, gravigrade, saltigrade, etc.
    • retrograde In botany: Going backward in the order of specialization, from a more to a less highly developed form: referring either to reversions of type or to individual monsters.
    • retrograde Formerly used of hairs, in the sense of retrorse.
    • retrograde Losing ground; deteriorating; declining in strength or excellence.
    • retrograde Contrary; opposed; opposite.
    • retrograde Change of tissue or substance from the more complex to the simpler composition; catabolism. See metamorphosis.
    • n retrograde In billiards, the pull-back, draw, or recoil.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • adj Retrograde ret′rō- or rē′trō-grād going backward: falling from better to worse: contrary: :
    • v.i Retrograde to go backwards
    • adj Retrograde ret′rō- or rē′trō-grād (biol.) becoming less highly organised, as 'a retrograde theory:' swimming backwards, as many animals
    • adj Retrograde ret′rō- or rē′trō-grād (astron.) moving westwards relatively to the fixed stars
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Quotations

  • Virgil
    Virgil
    “Thus all things are doomed to change for the worse and retrograde.”
  • Edward Gibbon
    Edward%20Gibbon
    “All that is human must retrograde if it does not advance.”
  • Johann Kaspar Lavater
    Johann%20Kaspar%20Lavater
    “There are three classes of men; the retrograde, the stationary and the progressive.”
  • James Freeman Clarke
    James Freeman Clarke
    “We are either progressing or retrograding all the while. There is no such thing as remaining stationary in this life.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. retrogradus, from retrogradi, retrogressus, to retrograde; retro, back + gradi, to step: cf. F. rétrograde,. See Grade
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. retrogradus, going backward—retro, backward, gradi, gressus, to go.

Usage

In literature:

The universities, however, under the control of the schoolmen, retrograded and decayed because they chose to remain mediaeval.
"Colleges in America" by John Marshall Barker
He has retrograded, though.
"A Collection of Stories, Reviews and Essays" by Willa Cather
But chops in these modern days are retrograde.
"Chimney-Pot Papers" by Charles S. Brooks
The arc of retrogradation is the angular distance thus apparently traversed.
"The Sailor's Word-Book" by William Henry Smyth
There will be no retrograde movement.
"Hopes and Fears scenes from the life of a spinster" by Charlotte M. Yonge
Nor yet could it retrograde for it stood in a position where any backward movement was impossible.
"Elizabeth Hobart at Exeter Hall" by Jean K. Baird
The column entangled in this narrow passage in vain attempted to retrograde.
"The Two Great Retreats of History" by George Grote
Mr. Ritter, being an intimate friend of the family, visited her, and, he says, found her retrograding.
"The No Breakfast Plan and the Fasting-Cure" by Edward Hooker Dewey
Another kind of palpitation may sometimes arise from the retrograde motions of the heart, as in fear.
"Zoonomia, Vol. II" by Erasmus Darwin
Baron Ricasoli had naturally many enemies amongst the Codini, or retrograde party.
"Personal Recollections, from Early Life to Old Age, of Mary Somerville" by Mary Somerville
The next generation witnessed two retrograde movements in the interpretation of myths.
"Introduction to the History of Religions" by Crawford Howell Toy
We sped in the retrograde, constantly accelerating back to the Beginning.
"Astounding Stories, May, 1931" by Various
A retrograde woman, and nothing else!
"Fathers and Children" by Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev
E. Johnston has certainly made a skillful retrograde movement in the face of the enemy at Manassas.
"A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital" by John Beauchamp Jones
People and towns seldom remain stationary; if they do not improve they retrograde.
"Helen Grant's Schooldays" by Amanda M. Douglas
It would brand him as a retrograde person.
"A Novelist on Novels" by W. L. George
He might have been taken for Owen if he had not been a retrograde.
"Essays on the Materialistic Conception of History" by Antonio Labriola
As has been inevitably the case in similar instances, they retrograded.
"Women of America" by John Rouse Larus
In the art and joy of singing together our people seem to have retrograded.
"The American Country Girl" by Martha Foote Crow
About noon he commenced his retrograde march for Boston.
"The Student's Life of Washington; Condensed from the Larger Work of Washington Irving" by Washington Irving
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In poetry:

They mollify the bald moon.
Nun-souled, they burn heavenward and never marry.
The eyes of the child I nurse are scarcely open.
In twenty years I shall be retrograde
As these drafty ephemerids.
"Candles" by Sylvia Plath
Without extinction is Liberty! without retrograde is Equality!
They live in the feelings of young men, and the best women;
Not for nothing have the indomitable heads of the earth been always
ready to fall for Liberty.
"As I Sat Alone" by Walt Whitman
If I have lived before, some evidence
Should that existence to the present bind;
Some innate inkling of experience
Should still imbue and permeate the mind,
If we, progressing, pass from state to state,
Or retrograde, as turns the wheel of fate.
"If I Have Lived Before." by Alfred Castner King

In news:

I never thought I would write "Oh boy, I'm so glad it's Mercury Retrograde".
Plaintiff, 40, developed gallstones and was to receive an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with stone removal and stent placement.
Mercury & Uranus Retrograde: Turning Inward .
Hockey / Carolina Hurricanes Mercurial retrograde.
As in 2000, Election Day falls on 'Mercury in retrograde .
Astrologers are watching Election Day with caution because at 6:05 pm, on the East Coast, the planet Mercury will go into retrograde motion, a time of confusion and miscommunication.
Mercury Retrograde is finally over, and as it shifts out of rewind and gains forward momentum, many of us are likely to feel as if daily life is moving at the speed of light.
Hockey / Carolina Hurricanes Mercurial retrograde .
Retrograde Approach to Complete Artery Blockages Boosts Success Rates.
Russia's Retrograde Stand on Drug Abuse.
Mercury's in retrograde and we're all in trouble.
Maria Shaw talks about the retrograde .
Starting today – on January 27, 2011 – Saturn will begin to go in a retrograde or westward direction in front of the constellation Virgo.
After Thursday's calm Taurus moon, Friday, the 13th, we're shaken up as Uranus , the star of revolution (the cool cat of the zodiac), changes direction, retrograding at 8:32 degrees Aries (until Dec 13).
Mercury is still Retrograde and will be until the middle of next week.
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In science:

M r ± 2a√M r qr(r2 − 3M r ± 2a√M r) where the upper signs are valid for the prograde (direct) orbits and the lower ones for the retrograde (counter–revolving) orbits.
Transition from regular to chaotic motion in black hole magnetospheres
It is sufficient to consider positive valu es of the spin parameter a without loss of generality (the cases of prograde and retrograde motion are distinguished by the sign of the particle charge and the orientation of the magnetic field).
Transition from regular to chaotic motion in black hole magnetospheres
In this paper, we show that an algorithm combining value iteration with retrograde analysis achieves a time bound of O(r2r (r log r + n)), thus improving both time bounds.
Solving simple stochastic games with few coin toss positions
The complexity of their algorithm for this more general case is O(r !(|E | + p)), where p is the maximum bit-length of a transition probability (they only claim O(r !(n|E | + p)), but by using retrograde analysis in their Proposition 1, the time is reduced by a factor of n).
Solving simple stochastic games with few coin toss positions
SolveDGG is the retrograde analysis based algorithm from Proposition 1 in Andersson et al. for solving deterministic graphical games.
Solving simple stochastic games with few coin toss positions
The final interesting point about Fig. 7 is the apparent lack of systems with mildly retrograde, close to polar orbits.
Rossiter-McLaughlin Effect Measurements for WASP-16, WASP-25 and WASP-31
One more transit light curve has been presented by Nascimbeni et al. (2011), and Winn et al. (2011) have found it to be in a retrograde orbit from observing its Rossiter-McLaughlin effect.
Homogeneous studies of transiting extrasolar planets. V. New results for 38 planets
In particular, at η = 7 (appropriate for the current PSR J0045-7319 system), retrograde rotation (Ωs < 0) can increase ∆Es from the nonrotating value by more than two orders of magnitude.
Orbital Decay of the PSR J0045-7319/B Star Binary System: Age of Radio Pulsar and Initial Spin of Neutron Star
For simplicity here we assume the spin axis is perpendicular to the orbital plane (but Ωs can have both positive and negative signs, corresponding to prograde and retrograde rotations with respect to the orbit).
Dynamical Tides in Rotating Binary Stars
We shall use the convention σα > 0 in this paper, so that a m > 0 mode has a retrograde pattern speed (−σ/m < 0), while a m < 0 mode has a prograde pattern speed.
Dynamical Tides in Rotating Binary Stars
Keel found that the current SFR (as measured by Hα equivalent width) did not depend much on the pro jected separation of the two galaxies, nor on whether a galaxy experienced the collision as prograde or retrograde.
Galaxy Collisions - Dawn of a New Era
Irregulars of giant planets are characterized by eccentric, highly tilted with respect of the parent planet equatorial plane, and in some case retrograde, orbits.
Constraints to Uranus' Great Collision. IV. The Origin of Prospero
This assumption maximizes the orbital damping for retrograde satellites which allows us to set upper bounds in the damping effect for the orbital eccentricity and semiaxis of all the retrograde irregulars.
Constraints to Uranus' Great Collision. IV. The Origin of Prospero
In normal galactic disc since ν, κ > Ω, the slow mode precession frequencies are always negative i.e. they are the retrograde modes in the disc.
Low frequency m=1 normal mode oscillations of a self-gravitating disc
The UVW velocities of this source unambiguously con firm it as a halo object, with a retrograde Galactic orbit relative to the Galactic disk.
Ultracool Subdwarfs: The Halo Population Down to the Substellar Limit
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