retardation

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n retardation the act of slowing down or falling behind
    • n retardation a decrease in rate of change "the deceleration of the arms race"
    • n retardation lack of normal development of intellectual capacities
    • n retardation any agent that retards or delays or hinders "flame-retardant"
    • n retardation the extent to which something is delayed or held back
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Einstein couldn't speak fluently when he was nine. His parents thought he might be retarded.
    • Retardation That which retards; an obstacle; an obstruction. "Hills, sloughs, and other terrestrial retardations ."
    • Retardation The act of retarding; hindrance; the act of delaying; as, the retardation of the motion of a ship; -- opposed to acceleration. "The retardations of our fluent motion."
    • Retardation The extent to which anything is retarded; the amount of retarding or delay.
    • Retardation (Mus) The keeping back of an approaching consonant chord by prolonging one or more tones of a previous chord into the intermediate chord which follows; -- differing from suspension by resolving upwards instead of downwards.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: From 1836 to 1896, the Red Flag Act in England required that any self-propelled vehicle be preceded by a man carrying a red flag by day and a red lantern by night. In effect, this limited the speed to four miles per hour and retarded the development of all self-propelled vehicles, including the automobile.
    • n retardation The act of retarding or making slower, or its effect; the hindering of motion, growth, or progress, or the hindrance effected; the act of delaying or impeding.
    • n retardation In physics:
    • n retardation A continuous decrement of velocity; a negative acceleration.
    • n retardation In acoustics and optics, the distance by which one wave is behind another. Better called retard, being translation of French retard.
    • n retardation Postponement; deferment.
    • n retardation Specifically, in music:
    • n retardation The act, process, or result of diminishing the speed or pace of the tempo
    • n retardation The prolongation of a concordant tone into a chord where it is a discord which is resolved upward: opposed to anticipation, and distinguished from suspension by the upward resolution
    • n retardation In telegraphy, decrease in the speed of telegraph-signaling due to self-induction and induction from surrounding conductors.
    • n retardation That which retards; a hindrance; an obstruction; an impediment.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Retardation delay: hinderance: obstacle: : :
    • n Retardation (phys.) a continuous decrement in velocity: in acoustics, the distance by which one wave is behind another
    • n Retardation (mus.) the act of diminishing the rate of speed
    • n Retardation (teleg.) decrease in the speed of telegraph signalling
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Quotations

  • Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
    Johann%20Wolfgang%20Von%20Goethe
    “Science has been seriously retarded by the study of what is not worth knowing and of what is not knowable.”
  • George Houston
    George Houston
    “Anything that interferes with individual progress ultimately will retard group progress.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. retardatio,: cf. F. retardation,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr.,—L. retardārere-, inten., tardāre, to make slow—tardus, slow.

Usage

In literature:

Sometimes the distance of the Spanish dominions in America retarded the decision of our claims.
"The Works of Samuel Johnson, Vol. 11." by Samuel Johnson
It is evident, that what Johnson did in hopes of relief, indicated an extraordinary eagerness to retard his dissolution.
"Life Of Johnson, Volume 4 (of 6)" by Boswell
We concluded it would be best and cheapest to pay dearly for our error rather than be retarded on our journey.
"Memoir and Diary of John Yeardley, Minister of the Gospel" by John Yeardley
Clothing retards the loss of heat by keeping in contact with it a layer of still air, which is an exceedingly bad conductor.
"A Practical Physiology" by Albert F. Blaisdell
Indeed, I greatly prefer to retard their progress, in this respect, rather than to hasten it.
"The Young Mother" by William A. Alcott
Nothing can retard the growth of America in material wealth and glory.
"Beacon Lights of History, Volume VI" by John Lord
It may be forwarded by cultivation, but it can scarcely at any rate be very much retarded.
"Four Early Pamphlets" by William Godwin
Civilization was doubtless retarded.
"Beacon Lights of History, Volume VIII" by John Lord
We may hasten or we may retard, but we can not prevent the final reconciliation.
"Phrases for Public Speakers and Paragraphs for Study" by Compiled by Grenville Kleiser
All this stuff only retards the action.
"Play-Making" by William Archer
The drug, which had been retarded in its operation on account of having been taken after a meal, now began to make itself more powerfully felt.
"The Lands of the Saracen" by Bayard Taylor
These reprehensible aggressions but retard the true progress of our nation and tarnish its fair fame.
"A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents," by James D. Richardson
Unforeseen circumstances, however, retarded the exchange until the 16th of August last.
"A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents" by James D. Richardson
But he was aware that it only slept; and he had no consideration for a siesta that retarded his affairs.
"The Iron Furrow" by George C. Shedd
Some time was consumed in this operation, and the advance of the brigade was, of course, retarded.
"The Life of George Washington, Vol. 2 (of 5)" by John Marshall
However, that narrative must not be retarded.
"The Paternoster Ruby" by Charles Edmonds Walk
They were no longer stopped or retarded by the multiplicity, but collected and united in one.
"The Autobiography of Madame Guyon" by Jeanne Marie Bouvier de La Motte Guyon
The necessity of transforming this tract in the very beginning of trade retarded the general growth incalculably.
"Lippincott's Magazine of Popular Literature and Science, Volume 11, No. 24, March, 1873" by Various
No labour retarded him in the pursuit.
"The War Trail" by Mayne Reid
Retard sparking Retard a l'allumage.
"English-French and French-English dictionary of the motor car, cycle, and boat" by Frederick Lucas
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In poetry:

Who called men from the gambling hell,
And told them that the cards,
That they had pushed from day to day
Would their own child retard?
"Sam Jones" by Frank Barbour Coffin
Who is it answers what is birth
Or death, that nothing may retard?
Or what is love, that seems of Earth,
Yet wears God's own divine regard?
"Problems" by Madison Julius Cawein
Though cloudy skies, and northern blasts,
Retard the gentle spring awhile;
The sun will conqu'ror prove at last,
And nature wear a vernal smile.
"Waiting For Spring" by John Newton
Still onward she flew, while the envious wind,
Half jealous, retarded her pace;
Dishevell'd her garments to stay her behind,
Or furiously broke in her face.
"Edmund And Anna" by Charlotte Dacre
Chance, say, or fate that works through good and evil;
Or destiny, that nothing may retard,
That to some end, above life's empty level,
Perhaps withholds reward.
"One Day And Another: A Lyrical Eclogue – Part III" by Madison Julius Cawein
The good Lady Sandys burst into a laughter
To see how the ballocks came wobbling after,
And had not their weight retarded the foe,
Indeed't had gone hard with Signior Dildo.
"Signior Dildo" by Lord John Wilmot

In news:

Government and private tests have found no meaningful difference in safety between chairs with flame-retardant foam and those without.
Manufacturers of fire retardants rely on questionable testimony, front groups to push standards that boost demand for their toxic — and ineffective — products.
Flame retardant chemicals show up in air around Great Lakes region.
Pregnant California women show high levels of flame retardant.
Fifteen of the 18 contained the flame-retardant chemicals.
Flame retardant chemicals affect development in frogs.
Concern grows over use of flame retardant HBCD.
Hexabromocyclododecane, commonly known as HBCD, is a flame retardant that is starting to give a lot of green builders headaches.
The Chicago Tribune lights up the flame-retardant industry.
Chemical industry challenges move to curb flame retardants.
'I don't want a retard ' baby.
Golden Tate 'drunk and being retarded .
The words " retarded " or " retard " feel threatening, she said.
White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel apologized again Wednesday for using the word " retarded " during a private meeting last summer, telling advocates for the disabled that he will join their campaign to help end the use of the word.
Here's how to retard tarnishing .
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In science:

Following then a parallel reasoning to that of Ref. for black holes, we can express the metric given by Eq.(1) in terms of the most convenient generalized retarded Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates, owing to the feature that a wormhole possesses a past outer trapping horizon.
Lorentzian wormholes generalizes thermodynamics still further
For the examples considered above, the retardation upon which cooling depends is due to the memory of the atom as it moves through an unperturbed optical field; the cooling mechanism in each case depends upon spontaneous emission, and its strength and limiting temperature are determined by the spontaneous lifetime.
Mirror-mediated cooling: a paradigm for particle cooling via the retarded dipole force
The non-retarded result of Ref. 32, for the particle and its reflection, is thus augmented by a further, velocity-dependent, term.
Mirror-mediated cooling: a paradigm for particle cooling via the retarded dipole force
External cavity cooling: the use of a resonant cavity in place of a simple mirror may greatly enhance the retardation without the complications associated with enclosing the particle inside the cavity.
Mirror-mediated cooling: a paradigm for particle cooling via the retarded dipole force
Polder, The influence of retardation on the Londonvan der Waals forces, Phys.
Mirror-mediated cooling: a paradigm for particle cooling via the retarded dipole force
Casimir H. B. G., Polder D. (1948), The influence of retardation on the London-van der Waals forces, Phys.
The Fractal Structure of Matter and the Casimir Effect
Hence, ignoring retardation and radiative effects is a good approximation in the computation of the magnetic selfinteraction of the sample.
Continuum multi-physics modeling with scripting languages: the Nsim simulation compiler prototype for classical field theory
On the real Minkowski background this is analogous to the field of the “retarded” time.
Algbrodynamics over complex space and phase extension of the Minkowski geometry
CP = {R|σ (P , R) = 0} It is known, that the electromagnetic interaction between two pointlike charged particles is carried out only via points, connecting with vanishing space-time interval (retarding interaction), i.e. via points, which are near from the relativistic viewpoint.
General relativity extended to non-Riemannian space-time geometry
Woolgar, “A positive mass theorem based on the focusing and retardation of null geodesics”, arXiv:gr-qc/9301015v2.
Proving the Achronal Averaged Null Energy Condition from the Generalized Second Law
When 0 < x < 1, the function I (x) has a finite magnitude and hence the real part of retarded self-energy ReΣ(ω ) has the same energy dependence as ImΣ(ω ).
Unconventional Fermi surface in two-dimensional systems of Dirac fermions
To calculate the retarded Green function at strong ’t Hooft coupling using AdS/CFT correspondence one makes use of the fact that the R-current J µ is dual to a Maxwell gauge field in the bulk [86–90].
R-Current DIS on a Shock Wave: Beyond the Eikonal Approximation
This estimate of the retarded expansion (the so-called ”Virgo infall”) views the universal expansion as existing not only on ”truly cosmological” scales ∼ 1000 Mpc, but also on local scales of ∼ 10 Mpc only weakly disturbed.
Dark energy domination in the Virgocentric flow
At larger distances the retardation effect gets weaker and gradually sinks below the measurement error level.
Dark energy domination in the Virgocentric flow
Procaccia, Retardation of the onset of turbulence by minor viscosity contrasts, Phys.
Linear Stability Analysis for Plane-Poiseuille Flow of an Elastoviscoplastic fluid with internal microstructure
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