refractory

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • adj refractory stubbornly resistant to authority or control "a fractious animal that would not submit to the harness","a refractory child"
    • adj refractory temporarily unresponsive or not fully responsive to nervous or sexual stimuli "the refractory period of a muscle fiber"
    • adj refractory not responding to treatment "a stubborn infection","a refractory case of acne","stubborn rust stains"
    • n refractory lining consisting of material with a high melting point; used to line the inside walls of a furnace
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Refractory A refractory person.
    • Refractory OPottery) A piece of ware covered with a vaporable flux and placed in a kiln, to communicate a glaze to the other articles.
    • Refractory Obstinate in disobedience; contumacious; stubborn; unmanageable; as, a refractory child; a refractory beast. "Raging appetites that are
      Most disobedient and refractory ."
    • Refractory Refractoriness.
    • Refractory Resisting ordinary treatment; difficult of fusion, reduction, or the like; -- said especially of metals and the like, which do not readily yield to heat, or to the hammer; as, a refractory ore.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • refractory Resisting; unyielding; sullen or perverse in opposition or disobedience; obstinate in non-compliance; stubborn and unmanageable.
    • refractory Resisting ordinary treatment or strains, etc.; difficult of fusion, reduction, or the like: said especially of metals and the like that require an extraordinary degree of heat to fuse them, or that do not yield readily to the hammer. In metallurgy an ore is said to be refractory when it is with difficulty treated by metallurgical processes, or when it is not easily reduced. Stone, brick, etc., are refractory when they resist the action of fire without melting, cracking, or crumbling. Refractory materials are such as can be used for the lining of furnaces and crucibles, and for similar purposes.
    • refractory Not susceptible; not subject; resisting (some influence, as of disease).
    • refractory Synonyms Stubborn, Intractable, etc. (see obstinate), unruly, ungovernable, unmanageable, headstrong, mulish.
    • n refractory One who is obstinate in opposition or disobedience.
    • n refractory Obstinate opposition.
    • n refractory In pottery, a piece of ware covered with a vaporable flux and placed in a kiln to communicate a glaze to other articles.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • adj Refractory rē-frak′to-ri breaking through rules: unruly: unmanageable: obstinate: perverse: difficult of fusion, as metals, &c.: not susceptible, as to disease
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. refractorius, fr. refringere,: cf. F. refractaire,. See Refract

Usage

In literature:

It was never easy to induce him to whip even a refractory horse or ox.
"A Busy Year at the Old Squire's" by Charles Asbury Stephens
The master caught the refractory youth by the collar and began shaking him, or rather shaking himself against him.
"The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 5, No. 28, February, 1860" by Various
From books he could learn: to human teachers he proved refractory.
"Victorian Worthies" by George Henry Blore
He, too, was found refractory, and displaced.
"Memoir of the Life of John Quincy Adams." by Josiah Quincy
But next time don't hit a refractory guide so hard.
"On the Heels of De Wet" by The Intelligence Officer
On the contrary, patients in the insane asylums, idiots, etc., are the most refractory.
"The Story of the Mind" by James Mark Baldwin
The refractory child has had to be threatened with corporal punishment in the form of an eternity of torment in Hell.
"What Is and What Might Be" by Edmond Holmes
The porters were not always easy to manage, and on some occasions were refractory.
"From Pole to Pole" by Sven Anders Hedin
By these means even refractory pieces of wood can be well smoothed.
"Handwork in Wood" by William Noyes
No punishment was so much dreaded by the refractory slave as selling.
"The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 17, No. 100, February, 1866" by Various
He took it, and worked himself into a childish passion against the refractory door, encouraged by the friendly gibes of the besieged.
"The Cock-House at Fellsgarth" by Talbot Baines Reed
Bloomfield made a grab at the two luckless youths, and shook them very much as a big dog shakes her refractory puppies.
"The Willoughby Captains" by Talbot Baines Reed
No temper is exactly sunny after a struggle with a refractory engine.
"Lady Bountiful" by George A. Birmingham
The picture proved refractory and refused to come out.
"Teddy: Her Book" by Anna Chapin Ray
A station, where rather more refractory offenders were sent, its government varied with the character of each officer.
"The History of Tasmania, Volume I (of 2)" by John West
The refractory hairs growing out in this supplementary patch surround the genuine cue with a halo an inch or two in height.
"The Continental Monthly, Vol. 6, No. 6, December 1864" by Various
Often he dispensed with forceps and extracted a refractory tooth with his thumb and finger.
"A Collection of Stories, Reviews and Essays" by Willa Cather
With a very refractory pupil she spoke in the tenderest tones of remonstrance and affection at these times.
"A World of Girls" by L. T. Meade
Miss Wilson put the refractory hooks to their proper use, then stood quiet.
"Elizabeth Hobart at Exeter Hall" by Jean K. Baird
With thoria the shrinkage is smaller than with any other known substance, and it possesses very high refractory powers.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 16, Slice 6" by Various
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In news:

Molybdenum and Tantalum have unique properties that make the refractory metals very attractive for use in today's advanced process technologies.
Application of gunnable foam/fiber insulation significantly decreases the overall heat loss of the refractory system and can provide a payback period in terms of energy savings typically in less than six months.
The pain had been present for several months but had become refractory to analgesics.
ANH Refractories recently announced it has secured a new deal to supply products to the Middle East petrochemical market.
Ceramics & Refractories/Insulation: Micro- Porous Castable Refractory for Molten Aluminum.
In the case of a manufacturer of proprietary refractory shapes, a small investment in improved process control is paying big dividends.
The authors of a comprehensive literature review offer broad recommendations for treating super- refractory status epilepticus.
Refractory status epilepticus poses a treatment dilemma.
The authors of a comprehensive literature review offer broad recommendations for treating super-refractory status epilepticus .
Refractory status epilepticus poses a treatment dilemma.
2006 is shaping up to be a very profitable year for refractories manufacturers, with many companies reporting double-digit increases in sales growth.
Molybdenum and Tantalum have unique properties that make the refractory metals very attractive for use in today's advanced process technologies.
Paradas, 51, was working on the roof of Harbison-Walker Refractories Co.
Patients with ERBB2- expressing , trastuzumab-refractory breast cancer respond well to tanespimycin plus trastuzumab ( J Clin Oncol 2007.
Production of Refractory Metal Chlorides.
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In science:

In case I (green), GJ 1214b accreted and retained primordial gas, ices and refractory material.
Three Possible Origins for the Gas Layer on GJ 1214b
The slower decay of the oscillation probability at D ' 0.6 can be explained by the shortening of transmission delay compared to the refractory period.
Self-Sustaining Oscillations in Complex Networks of Excitable Elements
The oscillation period is bounded from below by the refractory period.
Self-Sustaining Oscillations in Complex Networks of Excitable Elements
DL depending on the maximum delay per link: oscillation cannot be sustained if a pulse travelling along a loop returns to a given node while that node is still refractory.
Self-Sustaining Oscillations in Complex Networks of Excitable Elements
This discrepancy can be explained by the presence of dust in the GRB ISM, given the opposite refractory properties of iron and zinc.
UVES and FORS2 spectroscopy of GRB081008
This discrepancy can be explained by the presence of dust in the GRB ISM, given the opposite refractory properties of iron and zinc.
VLT/UVES and FORS2 spectroscopy of the GRB 081008 afterglow
Nyfors A, Rasmussen PA, Lemholt K, Eriksen B. Improvement of refractory psoriasis vulgaris after tonsillectomy.
Model of pathogenesis of psoriasis. Part 1. Systemic psoriatic process
This has been suggested by Henry et al. (2004) but they discard it because sulfur is not refractory.
Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution
The observed abundance ratios of presolar dust grains formed in SN ejecta and in AGB star out flows requires that for the ejecta from SNe the fracti on of refractory elements condensed into dust is 0.15 for carbon dust and is quite small (∼ 10−4 ) for other dust species.
Evolution of interstellar dust and stardust in the solar neighbourhood
Part of these grains are formed in stellar ejecta or stellar winds of highly evolved stars from the refractory elements therein and the resulting gas-dust-mixture is ultimately mixed with the general interstellar matter.
Evolution of interstellar dust and stardust in the solar neighbourhood
But generally only some fraction of the refractory elements in the ejecta is really condensed into solid phases; a big mass fraction of the refractory elements returned to the ISM – or sometimes even most of it – stays in the gas phase.
Evolution of interstellar dust and stardust in the solar neighbourhood
The refractory elements in the ISM gas therefore have different isotopic compositions than the same elements found in stardust grains.
Evolution of interstellar dust and stardust in the solar neighbourhood
Instead one observes a high degree of depletion of the refractory elements in the gas phase of the ISM (e.g.
Evolution of interstellar dust and stardust in the solar neighbourhood
The evolution of the dust component is not independent of the evolution of the element abundances since the refractory elements forming the dust are only gradually formed during the course of the chemical evolution of the galaxy.
Evolution of interstellar dust and stardust in the solar neighbourhood
During the first about one Gyr the degre e of condensation of refractory elements into dust increases only marginally by dust growth in molecular clouds.
Evolution of interstellar dust and stardust in the solar neighbourhood
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