rational

Definitions

  • The Ration Detail
    The Ration Detail
  • WordNet 3.6
    • adj rational having its source in or being guided by the intellect (as distinguished from experience or emotion) "a rational analysis"
    • adj rational of or associated with or requiring the use of the mind "intellectual problems","the triumph of the rational over the animal side of man"
    • adj rational consistent with or based on or using reason "rational behavior","a process of rational inference","rational thought"
    • adj rational capable of being expressed as a quotient of integers "rational numbers"
    • n rational an integer or a fraction
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Cut off from rations for three days Cut off from rations for three days
Drawing Rations 051 Drawing Rations 051

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: During the First World War, cigarettes were handed out to soldiers along with their rations
    • n Rational A rational being.
    • Rational Agreeable to reason; not absurd, preposterous, extravagant, foolish, fanciful, or the like; wise; judicious; as, rational conduct; a rational man.
    • Rational (Chem) Expressing the type, structure, relations, and reactions of a compound; graphic; -- said of formulæ. See under Formula. "What higher in her society thou find'st
      Attractive, human, rational , love still."
      "A law may be reasonable in itself, although a man does not allow it, or does not know the reason of the lawgivers."
    • Rational Having reason, or the faculty of reasoning; endowed with reason or understanding; reasoning. "It is our glory and happiness to have a rational nature."
    • Rational Relating to the reason; not physical; mental. "Moral philosophy was his chiefest end; for the rational , the natural, and mathematics . . . were but simple pastimes in comparison of the other."
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The U.S. army packs Tabasco pepper sauce in every ration kit that they give to soldiers
    • rational Of, pertaining to, or springing from the reason, in the sense of the highest faculty of cognition.
    • rational Endowed with reason, in the sense of that faculty which distinguishes man from the brutes: as, man is a rational animal.
    • rational Conformable to the precepts of reason, especially of the practical reason; reasonable; wise.
    • rational In arithmetic and algebra:
    • rational Expressible in finite terms: applied to expressions in which no extraction of a root is left, or, at least, none such indicated which cannot be actually performed by known processes. The contraries of these are called surd or irrational quantities. Thus 2, 12½, 9, are rational quantities, and etc., are irrational or surd quantities, because their values can only be approximately and not accurately assigned.
    • rational In Euclid's “Elements” and commentaries, etc., on that work, commensurable with a given line. In senses
    • rational In ancient prosody, capable of measurement in terms of the metrical unit (semeion or mora). A rational time (χρόνος ρ)ητός) is a time divisible by this unit without remainder. Thus, disemic times (times of two semeia) are rational, while irrational times (χρόνοι α+λογοι) can be expressed only by fractions (as ¾, 1½, 2½, 2⅔) of a semeion.
    • rational The composition of elements which only differ as viewed by the mind, and not as they exist, as the composition of essence and existence, of being and relation, etc.
    • rational The union of several objects so far as they are brought together into or under one concept.
    • rational The limits of rational knowledge.
    • rational Knowledge springing directly or indirectly from reason, and not from experience.
    • rational Synonyms Rational, Reasonable, sensible, enlightened, discreet, intelligent, sane, sound. The first two words are somewhat different, according as they refer to persons or things. As to persons, rational is the more speculative, reasonable the more practical term; rational means possessing the faculty of reason, while reasonable means exercising reason in its broader sense, in opposition to unreasonable—that is, guided by prejudice, fancy, etc. In fever the patient may become irrational and give irrational answers; when he is rational he may through weakness and fretfulness make unreasonable demands of his physician. As to things, the distinction continues between the narrower and the broader senses: a rational proposition is one that might proceed from a rational mind; a reasonable proposition is one that is marked by common sense and fairness. It is irrational to look for a coal-mine in a granite-ledge; it is unreasonable to expect good work for poor pay. See absurd.
    • n rational A quiddity; a universal; a. nature. Thus, in the first quotation “the world of rationals” is the rational world, the system of general or possible entities. The conception is Platonic.
    • n rational Eccles.:
    • n rational The breastplate of the Jewish high-priest. The name rational for the Jewish high-priest's breastplate (Hebrew chōshen, an ‘ornament,’ according to others a ‘pouch’ or ‘receptacle’) comes from the Latin rationale, a mistaken translation in the Vulgate of the word λόγιον or λογεϊον in the Septuagint, etc., meaning an ‘oracle’ or ‘oracular instrument,’ with allusion to the consultation of the Urim and Thummim.
    • n rational Hence— A square plate of gold, silver, or embroidery, either jeweled or enameled, formerly worn on the breast over the chasuble by bishops during the celebration of mass. Also pectoral and rationale in both senses.
    • n rational In mathematics, a rational number.
    • n rational One who is a believer in so-called ‘rational’ reforms, as in dress or food.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: During the American Civil War the Union soldiers were issued eight pounds of ground roasted coffee as part of their personal ration of one hundred pounds of food. And they had another choice: ten pounds of green coffee beans.
    • adj Rational rash′on-al pertaining to the reason: endowed with reason: agreeable to reason: sane: intelligent: judicious:
    • v.i Rational to rely entirely or unduly on reason
    • n Rational rash′on-al the breast-plate of the Jewish high-priest: a pectoral worn by a bishop.
    • adj Rational rash′on-al (arith., alg.) noting a quantity which can be exactly expressed by numbers
    • ***

Quotations

  • Marcus T. Cicero
    Marcus%20T.%20Cicero
    “I add this, that rational ability without education has more often raised man to glory and virtue, than education without natural ability”
  • Francois De La Rochefoucauld
    Francois%20De%20La%20Rochefoucauld
    “We never desire strongly, what we desire rationally.”
  • Noam Chomsky
    Noam%20Chomsky
    “I have often thought that if a rational Fascist dictatorship were to exist, then it would choose the American system.”
  • Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
    Vladimir%20Ilyich%20Lenin
    “It is true that liberty is precious. So precious that it must be rationed.”
  • William Wycherley
    William Wycherley
    “Good fellowship and friendship are lasting, rational and manly pleasures.”
  • Voltaire
    Voltaire
    “Pleasure is the object, duty and the goal of all rational creatures.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. rationalis,: cf. F. rationnel,. See Ratio Reason, and cf. Rationale

Usage

In literature:

Besides this, we had our haversack containing emergency rations: tea, sugar, army biscuits, and bully-beef.
"Into the Jaws of Death" by Jack O'Brien
The restaurants are still fairly supplied; so that the system of rationing is not yet carried out in its integrity.
"Diary of the Besieged Resident in Paris" by Henry Labouchère
English Rationalism consists of three departments: Philosophical, Literary, and Critical Rationalism.
"History of Rationalism Embracing a Survey of the Present State of Protestant Theology" by John F. Hurst
We made a box and put our rations in it.
"Slave Narratives: a Folk History of Slavery in the United States From Interviews with Former Slaves" by Work Projects Administration
The world does not encourage a perfectly rational army, because a perfectly rational army would run away.
"George Bernard Shaw" by Gilbert K. Chesterton
But their rationalism gave a strange turn to the satisfaction of that need.
"History of Dogma, Volume 2 (of 7)" by Adolph Harnack
But, as Shorty said, everything depended on the ration allowance.
"Kitchener's Mob" by James Norman Hall
It was nearly noon now, and rations had not come; the cook's waggons were delayed on the road.
"The Red Horizon" by Patrick MacGill
We were short of rations, but each officer contributed something from his private store.
"The Great War As I Saw It" by Frederick George Scott
Enough provisions were collected, among the houses, to furnish the whole with three or four days' rations.
"Under Wellington's Command" by G. A. Henty
From the advanced dump the rations were man-handled by companies to their own cook-houses.
"The Fifth Battalion Highland Light Infantry in the War 1914-1918" by F.L. Morrison
Everybody took what old Master rationed out.
"Slave Narratives, Oklahoma" by Various
However, since he had been eating regularly from Survey rations, he was not quite so scrawny any more.
"Storm Over Warlock" by Andre Norton
The resulting states of mind are too rational as means, and too exalted and ideal to be thus primitive.
"The Psychology of Nations" by G.E. Partridge
The insane man is not a free, rational agent.
"Essays In Pastoral Medicine" by Austin ÓMalley
It soon became apparent to the road hunters, that two days' rations would not suffice for what work they had before them.
"Eleven Years in the Rocky Mountains and Life on the Frontier" by Frances Fuller Victor
The "rationalizing" process will mean at first greater use of intelligence to satisfy these same wants.
"Ethics" by John Dewey and James Hayden Tufts
The bread-ration was reduced.
"And the Kaiser abdicates" by S. Miles Bouton
Revelation is not magical, but rational and moral.
"The Book of Isaiah, Volume I (of 2)" by George Adam Smith
Four groups of six pigs each were put in four different pens and fed four different rations.
"The Principles of Economics" by Frank A. Fetter
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In poetry:

The Haggis, the Haggis;
Wull Wright an unco' wag is,
And he cried out wi' passion
"The smell itsel'
Might very well
Serve for a sodger's ration!"
"The Haggis" by Joseph Johnston Lee
I imagine him
Impotent as distant thunder,
In whose shadow I have eaten my ghost ration.
I wish him dead or away.
That, it seems, is the impossibility.
"The Jailer" by Sylvia Plath
Whiskered cats arointed flee,
Sturdy stoppers keep from thee
Cologne distillations;
Nuts lie in thy path for stones,
And thy feast-day macaroons
Turn to daily rations!
"To Flush, My Dog" by Elizabeth Barrett Browning
And now each work (while nature's fabric stands)
Loud for its wise and mighty Lord demands
A rent of praise, a loud and lofty song,
From every rational beholder's tongue.
"The Believer's Principles : Chap. I." by Ralph Erskine
A ration of rum and a biscuit was served out to each man,
And the weary night passed, and then appeared the morning dawn;
And when the lifeboat hove in sight a sailor did shout,
"Thank God, there's she at last without any doubt."
"The Wreck of the 'Indian Chief'" by William Topaz McGonagall
Dusty patch in desolation, bare slab walls and earthen floor,
And a blinding drought is blazing from horizons to the door:
Milkless tea and ration sugar, damper junk and pumpkin mash—
And a Day on our Selection passes by me in a flash.
"The Last Review" by Henry Lawson

In news:

Maybe Investors' Exuberance Over Apple *Is* Rational.
Rational despair sends investors fleeing for safe havens.
The morning talk-show host says Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen Martin Dempsey's comments that Iran is a rational actor should be a firing offense.
How the group is rationalizing its attack on Malala Yousufzai.
"Rational choice" not to hold bi- lats , says Inderfurth.
They believe that investors are rational, and that stock prices are therefore unpredictable.
States are much more able to make rational decisions about their schools and control funding for them than the Feds ever were or will be.
IF President Obama stumbled in his handling of the debt crisis, in my view, it was because he is too normal: too rational, willing to compromise, a rule-follower, conventionally wise.
Mayor Michael Bloomberg says odd-even rationing seems to have eased the post-storm gasoline crunch in New York City, but he's not sure when he'll lift the restriction.
Gas rationing eases fuel crunch in NYC.
Cynicism and a return to rationality.
Rational Acoustics Smaart v7 is Pretty Damned Smart.
Rational Acoustics is doing everything it can to give us the tool we need to curb horrible sound pollution.
As Nor'easter Dumps Snow, Gas Rationing Comes to New York.
Obamacare's backers have a plan to justify their attempts to ration medicine — by saying that it's good for you.
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In science:

This is done by considering al l the Rational Non-Symmetrical Half Plane (RNSHP) linear orders, each inducing a different partitioning of the two-dimensional lattice into two sets by a broken straight line of rational slope.
The Rank of the Covariance Matrix of an Evanescent Field
Rn defined by polynomial equations and inequations with rational coefficients, and Ω is a rational differential form with rational coefficients.
Galois theory, motives and transcendental numbers
If X ∞ is a smooth manifold, rational combinations of cycles give rise, by duality, to Betti (= singular) cohomology HB (X ∞) with rational coefficients, whereas smooth complex differential forms give rise to De Rham cohomology HDR (X ∞ ).
Galois theory, motives and transcendental numbers
Definition 3.3 (universality). A computable, increasing and converging sequence {an} of rational numbers is cal led universal if for every computable, increasing and converging sequence {bn} of rational numbers there exists c ∈ N+ such that c(α−an ) ≥ β−bn for al l n ∈ N, where α = limn→∞ an and β = limn→∞ bn .
Equivalent characterizations of partial randomness for a recursively enumerable real
Thus, since α is r.e. and Martin-L¨of T -random by the assumption, it follows from Lemma 5.2 that there exist a computable, increasing sequence {an } of rational numbers and a rational number r > 0 such that an+1 − an > rε(cn+1 − cn ) for every n ∈ N, a0 > 0, and α = limn→∞ an .
Equivalent characterizations of partial randomness for a recursively enumerable real
Since α is r.e. and Martin-L¨of T -random by the assumption, it follows from Lemma 5.2 that there exist a computable, increasing sequence {an } of rational numbers and a rational number q > 0 such that an+1 − an > q(bn+1 − bn ) for every n ∈ N and α = limn→∞ an .
Equivalent characterizations of partial randomness for a recursively enumerable real
We use the fact that the algebra A(V ) for rational vertex operator algebra V is a finite dimensional semisimple associative algebra in this paper to prove that any rational vertex operator algebra is finitely generated.
Rational vertex operator algebras are finitely generated
Using this, rationality of level d trees implies rationality of level d side branches.
Trees of definable sets over the p-adics
M2 ([−1, 1]) having rational eigenvalues, since any matrix with real eigenvalues is a small perturbation from one with rational eigenvalues.
The number of 2x2 integer matrices having a prescribed integer eigenvalue
McCarthy in , showed that the homology groups of this complex, with rational coefficients, are isomorphic to the rational algebraic K-groups of X .
A chain morphism for Adams operations on rational algebraic K-theory
Hence, its rational homology groups are isomorphic to the rational K -groups.
A chain morphism for Adams operations on rational algebraic K-theory
Then there is a rational morphism ν : C ′ → ϕM (C ) such that the following diagram commutes as rational morphisms, since π is birational.
Normal generation of line bundles on multiple coverings
We strengthen this result by showing that there are |K | many rational points that do not lie in a given proper subfield, even after applying a rational map.
Subfields of ample fields I. Rational maps and definability
Let K be an ample field, C a curve defined over K with a simple K -rational point and ϕ : C → C ′ a separable dominant K rational map to an affine curve C ′ ⊆ An defined over K .
Subfields of ample fields I. Rational maps and definability
Powers of rationals modulo 1 and rational base number systems.
Factor complexity of infinite words associated with non-simple Parry numbers
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