pupil

Definitions

  • "The sailor-pupil climbed into the car."
    "The sailor-pupil climbed into the car."
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n pupil the contractile aperture in the center of the iris of the eye; resembles a large black dot
    • n pupil a young person attending school (up through senior high school)
    • n pupil a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

An Apt Pupil An Apt Pupil

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Goats' eyes have rectangular pupils.
    • Pupil (Civil Law) A boy or a girl under the age of puberty, that is, under fourteen if a male, and under twelve if a female.
    • Pupil A person under a guardian; a ward.
    • Pupil A youth or scholar of either sex under the care of an instructor or tutor. "Too far in years to be a pupil now.""Tutors should behave reverently before their pupils ."
    • n Pupil (Anat) The aperture in the iris; the sight, apple, or black of the eye. See the Note under Eye, and Iris.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Experiments conducted in Germany and at the University of Southampton in England show that even mild and incidental noises cause the pupils of the eyes to dilate. It is believed that this is why surgeons, watchmakers, and others who perform delicate manual operations are so bothered by noise. The sounds cause their pupils to change focus and blur their vision.
    • n pupil A youth or any person of either sex under the care of an instructor or tutor; in general, a scholar; a disciple.
    • n pupil A ward; a youth or person under the care of a guardian.
    • n pupil In civil law, a person under puberty (fourteen for males, twelve for females), over whom a guardian has been appointed.
    • pupil Under age; in a state of pupilage or nonage; minor.
    • n pupil The orifice of the iris; the hole or opening in the iris through which light passes. The pupil appears usually as a black spot in the middle of the colored part of the eye, this appearance being due to the darkness of the back of the eye. The pupil contracts when the retina is stimulated, as by light, on accommodation for near distances and on convergence of the visual axes; pain may cause a dilatation. The size of the pupil is determined by the circular and radiating muscular fibers of the iris. It may also be influenced by drugs: thus, opium contracts and belladonna dilates the pupil. The same consequences may result from disease or injury. The shape of the pupil in most animals is circular, as the expression of the uniform action of the contractile fibers of the iris; but in many animals it is oval, elliptical, or slit-like. Thus, the pupil of the cat contracts to a mere chink in the sunlight, and dilates to a circle in the dark. The pupil of the horse is a broad, nearly parallel-sided fissure obtusely rounded at each end. The variability of the pupil in size is not less remarkable in owls than in cats, but in these birds it keeps its circular figure, changing in size from a mere point to a disk which leaves the iris a mere rim. The pupil sometimes gives zoological characters, as in distinguishing foxes from wolves or dogs. See iris, 6, and cuts under eye.
    • n pupil In zoology: The central dark part of an ocellated spot. See ocellus, 4.
    • n pupil A dark, apparently interior, spot seen in the compound eyes of certain insects, and changing in position as it is viewed from different sides.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The pupil of the eye expands as much as 45 percent when a person looks at something pleasing.
    • n Pupil pū′pil a little boy or girl: one under the care of a tutor: a scholar: a ward:
    • adj Pupil under age
    • n Pupil pū′pil the round opening in the middle of the eye through which the light passes: the apple of the eye, so called from the baby-like figures seen on it:
    • n Pupil pū′pil (law) one under the age of puberty—i.e. under fourteen years for males, and twelve for females
    • n Pupil pū′pil (zool.) the central dark part of an ocellated spot
    • ***

Quotations

  • Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
    Johann%20Wolfgang%20Von%20Goethe
    “Master and Doctor are my titles; for ten years now, without repose, I held my erudite recitals and led my pupils by the nose.”
  • Arthur Koestler
    Arthur%20Koestler
    “Creative activity could be described as a type of learning process where teacher and pupil are located in the same individual.”
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson
    Ralph%20Waldo%20Emerson
    “In every man there is something wherein I may learn of him, and in that I am his pupil.”
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes
    Oliver%20Wendell%20Holmes
    “The mind of a bigot is like the pupil of the eye; the more light you pour on it, the more it will contract.”
  • Thomas Fuller
    Thomas%20Fuller
    “Today is yesterday's pupil.”
  • Diogenes of Sinope
    Diogenes of Sinope
    “Why not whip the teacher when the pupil misbehaves?”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F. pupille, n. masc. & fem., L. pupillus, pupilla, dim. of pupus, boy, pupa, girl. See Puppet, and cf. Pupil of the eye
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Same as above word.

Usage

In literature:

The pupil who expects a hundred-mark must be learning and moving onward all the time.
"Hester's Counterpart" by Jean K. Baird
His first effort was to prepare a list of books suitable for pupils in all grades of the rural schools.
"Chapters in Rural Progress" by Kenyon L. Butterfield
Plato specifies dancing among the necessities for the ideal republic, and Socrates urged it upon his pupils.
"The Art of Stage Dancing" by Ned Wayburn
My pupil, I long to have you in my own home.
"Macaria" by Augusta Jane Evans Wilson
He rejected no pupil of ability and ambition, but accepted none without these qualities.
"History of Education" by Levi Seeley
The right method for one pupil might be quite different from that which would bring about the best results with another pupil.
"Great Pianists on Piano Playing" by James Francis Cooke
A young pupil wrote of a party in the woods.
"English: Composition and Literature" by W. F. (William Franklin) Webster
There were already three other little girls in the class, who all gazed in amazement at the new pupil.
"'Lizbeth of the Dale" by Marian Keith
But in spite of the severe discipline of Miss Forbes's school, her pupils occasionally engaged in current gossip.
"As I Remember" by Marian Gouverneur
In uncomplicated cases the pupils are usually equal, moderately dilated, and react sluggishly to light.
"Manual of Surgery Volume Second: Extremities--Head--Neck. Sixth Edition." by Alexander Miles
I would not allow papa to take any pupils if it was me.
"Phoebe, Junior" by Mrs [Margaret] Oliphant
The father prudently stopped here, that he might not confuse his pupil's understanding.
"Practical Education, Volume I" by Maria Edgeworth
That's lonely for a new pupil.
"Miss Ashton's New Pupil" by Mrs. S. S. Robbins
It seems she's come from some much smaller school, where she's been the head girl and show pupil, and the rest of it.
"The Madcap of the School" by Angela Brazil
I'm sure you understand that it would be impossible for me to keep on my school if pupils did not pay their fees.
"The Leader of the Lower School" by Angela Brazil
The young pupils who attend the remote schools of the uplands, also deserve much sympathy.
"Literary Tours in The Highlands and Islands of Scotland" by Daniel Turner Holmes
His last work, the altar-piece at the Frari, was completed after his death in 1504 by his pupil Basaiti.
"Six Centuries of Painting" by Randall Davies
She was the oldest pupil.
"Loyal to the School" by Angela Brazil
Our school numbers 700, officers, teachers, and pupils, with a large percentage of men and women in the Senior Classes.
"Seven Graded Sunday Schools" by Various
Then summoning her courage, the new pupil hurried to the end parlor and entered it as she had been taught.
"Dorothy at Oak Knowe" by Evelyn Raymond
***

In poetry:

Here are two pupils
whose moons of black
transform to cripples
all who look:
"On Looking Into The Eyes Of A Demon Lover" by Sylvia Plath
PUPIL.
Son of light, I have that boon;
I besought, and found it soon,
And I hold it, heart-within.
"The Bard And His Pupil." by Samuel Bamford
Oh! piteous to behold,
My fellow-pupil falls by me:
It was an end that should not be,
Alas! O brooch of gold!
"Ferdiah; Or, The Fight At The Ford" by Denis Florence MacCarthy
The pupil may surpass the sage
If such his aim shall be,
May fathom truths for many an age
Were wrapped mystery.
"Discontent" by Jared Barhite
No thought of thine from art is drawn,
But Nature's pupil only;
Thou'rt graceful as a little fawn,
That dwells in forest lonely.
"To Laurestine" by Peter John Allan
Pupils,--her guiding voice,
Her sweetly warbled strain
Urging your spirits to be wise
With daily, tuneful harmonies
Ye shall not hear again.
"Miss Emily B. Parish," by Lydia Howard Huntley Sigourney

In news:

West Hartford Per Pupil Spending Down, Performance Up.
The Census Bureau compiles data on education spending per pupil for elementary/secondary education.
Per- Pupil Spending up Slightly.
School districts in 2008-09 spent an average of $10,591 per pupil , the National Center for Education Statistics says.
Professor Garnett's newest pupil .
Just because Sam Hurd is possibly out for the year after undergoing ankle surgery today, it doesn't mean Terrell Owens is without a pupil .
Local Per- Pupil Spending By District.
The Del Mar Union School District's director of pupil services, Sheila Weinberg, is leaving the district on Aug 1.
Utah Spends Less Per Pupil Than Any Other State.
The state of Utah currently puts fewer funds towards education per pupil than in any other state.
Egyptian teacher convicted in pupil haircut case.
City schools plan to increase per- pupil funding by about 3 percent.
Per- pupil spending in districts with 10,000 students or more.
USC track coach's former pupil going for gold.
A first-grade pupil at East Hill Elementary School in the West Genesee School District died after suffering a seizure in the school today, the school superintendent said.
***

In science:

The image of the AAT telescope pupil completely fills the 50µm core of the fiber.
SPIRAL Phase A: A Prototype Integral Field Spectrograph for the AAT
Note that both pupils in Figure 3 are at the same scale, and the bulk of the light falls outside the original pupil.
Using Notch-Filter Masks for High Contrast Imaging of Extrasolar Planets
The Lyot stop would be the overlap of three HST pupils, just as in the ideal case.
Using Notch-Filter Masks for High Contrast Imaging of Extrasolar Planets
Telescope Pupil Shape: Some DLSSs are only compatible with special telescope primary mirror shapes.
Coronographic Methods for the Detection of Terrestrial Planets
It is an example of coherent design of a coronograph and control system. The technique splits the pupil into N ~ 1000 subapertures.
Coronographic Methods for the Detection of Terrestrial Planets
For a large number of segments, pupil masks are probably required for useful levels of throughput.
Coronographic Methods for the Detection of Terrestrial Planets
Masking a twodimensional segmented pupil using numerical optimization is a solvable problem that has never been done.
Coronographic Methods for the Detection of Terrestrial Planets
While it is viable to correct the pupil with a precision high authority deformable mirror (DM), dimensional stability of the pupil and the system alignment are of great concern.
Coronographic Methods for the Detection of Terrestrial Planets
Voit. Four-quadrant phase mask coronagraph: analytical calculation and pupil geometry. In High-Contrast Imaging for Exo-Planet Detection. Edited by Alfred B.
Coronographic Methods for the Detection of Terrestrial Planets
ZEMAX calculates the PSF as the Fourier transform of the wavefront in the exit pupil of the system.
The intensity contrast of solar granulation: comparing Hinode SP results with MHD simulations
We plan to obtain further observations of ζ Aql at high angular resolution with single-pupil telescopes to give a fi nal answer to this question.
A near-infrared interferometric survey of debris disc stars. II. CHARA/FLUOR observations of six early-type dwarfs
T he APLC One of the limitations that occur with a Lyot coronagraph is the light distribu tion in the relayed pupil.
Prototyping coronagraphs for exoplanet characterization with SPHERE
Th is par ticular work was ex tremely important to drive some requ irements of the whole system, like the presence of the Pupil tip /tilt mirror and that of a D ifferen tial Tip Tilt Sensor.
Prototyping coronagraphs for exoplanet characterization with SPHERE
If one puts a mask on the output pupil D , then the field j (y ) is transformed into j (y )n(y ), where n(y ) is the refraction coefficient of the mask.
Does negative refraction make a perfect lens?
For instance, with one DM conjugated to the telescope pupil (GLAO), a wide field can be corrected uniformly, however the performance is dramatically limited by this error term.
Tomographic reconstruction for Wide Field Adaptive Optics systems: Fourier domain analysis and fundamental limitations
***