proposition

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • v proposition suggest sex to "She was propositioned by a stranger at the party"
    • n proposition a task to be dealt with "securing adequate funding is a time-consuming proposition"
    • n proposition (logic) a statement that affirms or denies something and is either true or false
    • n proposition the act of making a proposal "they listened to her proposal"
    • n proposition an offer for a private bargain (especially a request for sexual favors)
    • n proposition a proposal offered for acceptance or rejection "it was a suggestion we couldn't refuse"
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Proposition (Gram. & Logic) A complete sentence, or part of a sentence consisting of a subject and predicate united by a copula; a thought expressed or propounded in language; a from of speech in which a predicate is affirmed or denied of a subject; as, snow is white .
    • Proposition (Math) A statement in terms of a truth to be demonstrated, or of an operation to be performed.
    • Proposition A statement of religious doctrine; an article of faith; creed; as, the propositions of Wyclif and Huss. "Some persons . . . change their propositions according as their temporal necessities or advantages do turn."
    • Proposition (Rhet) That which is offered or affirmed as the subject of the discourse; anything stated or affirmed for discussion or illustration.
    • Proposition That which is proposed; that which is offered, as for consideration, acceptance, or adoption; a proposal; as, the enemy made propositions of peace; his proposition was not accepted.
    • Proposition The act of setting or placing before; the act of offering. "Oblations for the altar of proposition ."
    • Proposition (Poetry) The part of a poem in which the author states the subject or matter of it.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n proposition The act of placing or setting forth; the act of offering.
    • n proposition That which is proposed; that which is offered for consideration, acceptance, or adoption; a proposal; offer of terms: commonly in the plural: as, propositions of peace.
    • n proposition A representation in thought or language of an act of the mind in thinking a quality or general sign, termed a predicate, to be applicable to something indicated, and termed a subject. This connecting of predicate and subject may range from a mental necessity to a mere impulse to look at a certain possibility. These differences are called differences in the mode, or modality, of the proposition, according to which, as ordinarily slated, propositions are either de inease (that is, the mode is not considered) or modal, and in this case problematical, contingent, or apodictic. The modality may properly be said to affect the copula, or form of junction of the predicate and subject. The predicate, logically speaking, embraces the whole representation of the quality of the fact. Thus, in the proposition “Elijah was caught up to heaven,” the grammatical predicate is “was caught up to heaven”; but the logical predicate includes the whole picture which the sentence conveys — that of a man caught up to heaven. The predicate, however, is not a mere picture; it views the fact represented analytically, and distinguishes certain objects as identical with the subjects. There may be only one subject, or, if the predicate expresses a relation, there may be several. These subjects cannot be sufficiently indicated by any general description, but only by a real junction with experience, as by a finger-pointing. In ordinary language they are for the most part but imperfectly expressed. In whatever way they are represented, they can commonly (in the last analysis always) be set forth in classes only; from such a class the subject meant is to be taken in one or other of three ways: first, by a suitable selection, so as to render the proposition true; secondly, by taking any one, no matter which; thirdly, by taking no matter what one among a selected proportion of those which present themselves in experience. The first mode of selection gives a particular proposition, as “An object can be selected which is a man caught up to heaven”; the second mode gives a universal proposition, as “Take any object you please in this world, and it is not a man caught up to heaven”; the third mode gives a statistical proposition, as “Half the human beings in the world are women.” If there are several subjects, the order of their selection is often important. Thus, it is one thing to say that having taken any man you please a woman can be found who was his mother, and quite another to say that a woman can be found such that, whatever man you select, that woman was that man's mother. Several of the distinctions between propositions found in the old treatises are based on distinctions between the different categories (or, in modern logical language, universes) from which the subjects are understood to be drawn. Such is the distinction between a categorical proposition, whose subject is denoted by a noun, and a hypothetical proposition, whose subject is a hypothetical state of things denoted by a sentence. Such is also the distinction between a synthetical proposition, whose subject is drawn from the world of real experience, and may suitably be denoted by a concrete noun, and an analytic proposition, whose subject is drawn from a world of ideas, and may suitably be denoted by an abstract noun. Propositions are further distinguished according to the forms of their predicates; but these distinctions, unlike those already noticed, merely concern the form under which the proposition happens to be thought or expressed, and do not concern its substance. The predicates of propositions are either simple, negative, or compound; and in the latter case they may conveniently be considered (by a slight fiction) as either disjunctive or conjunctive.
    • n proposition In mathematics, a statement in terms of either a truth to be demonstrated or an operation to be performed. It is called a theorem when it is something to be proved, and a problem when it is an operation to be done. Abbreviated properly
    • n proposition In rhetoric, that which is offered or affirmed as the subject of the discourse; anything stated or affirmed for discussion or illustration; the first part of a poem, in which the author states the subject or matter of it: as, Horace recommends modesty and simplicity in the proposition of a poem.
    • n proposition In music: The act or process of enunciating or giving out a theme or subject.
    • n proposition Specifically — The subject of a fugue, as distinguished from the answer.
    • n proposition An assumption of what appears likely.
    • n proposition propositions de necessario quando, which stated something to be necessarily true at specified times; and.
    • n proposition propositions de necessario simpliciter, or categorical apodictic propositions. The latter were further divided into propositions de necessario simpliciter pro nunc, or propositions stating something to be necessarily true now, and propositions de necessario simpliciter pro semper, stating something to be always necessarily true.
    • n proposition Usually, a categorical proposition, or one expressed by means of a noun and a verb, as contradistinguished from a conditional proposition.
    • n proposition Position, thesis, statement, declaration, dictum, doctrine. Proposition differs from the words compared under subject, in that it is the technical word in rhetoric for the indication of the theme of a discourse.
    • n proposition Something to be done, accomplished, etc.; especially, something difficult or puzzling.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Proposition prop-ō-zish′un a placing before: offer of terms: that which is proposed: the act of stating anything: that which is stated: :
    • n Proposition prop-ō-zish′un (gram. and logic) a complete sentence, or one which affirms or denies something
    • n Proposition prop-ō-zish′un (math.) a theorem or problem to be demonstrated or solved
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Quotations

  • John Jay Chapman
    John%20Jay%20Chapman
    “You can get assent to almost any proposition so long as you are not going to do anything about it.”
  • Georg C. Lichtenberg
    Georg%20C.%20Lichtenberg
    “If an angel were ever to tell us anything of his philosophy I believe many propositions would sound like 2 times 2 equals 13.”
  • Dean Smith
    Dean Smith
    “If you make every game a life and death proposition, you're going to have problems. For one thing, you'll be dead a lot.”
  • Aldous Huxley
    Aldous%20Huxley
    “That all men are equal is a proposition to which, at ordinary times, no sane human being has ever given his assent.”
  • H. Allen Smith
    H. Allen Smith
    “On Monday mornings I am dedicated to the proposition that all men are created jerks.”
  • Wilson Mizner
    Wilson%20Mizner
    “Life is a tough proposition and the first hundred years are the hardest.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. propositio,: cf. F. proposition,. See Propound
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr.,—L. propositio.

Usage

In literature:

That, I think, is a sporting proposition.
"Desert Dust" by Edwin L. Sabin
They little knew their man when they made a proposition so vile!
"Sir Harry Hotspur of Humblethwaite" by Anthony Trollope
Suppose I were to make you a proposition.
"Paul and the Printing Press" by Sara Ware Bassett
When she had defaulted the next payment he would make her a proposition to buy her boats.
"El Diablo" by Brayton Norton
Hence, I asked the gentleman from Pennsylvania this morning to be consistent in his proposition.
"History of Woman Suffrage, Volume II"
Arguments from cause include those propositions which, if they were granted, would account for the fact or proposition maintained.
"English: Composition and Literature" by W. F. (William Franklin) Webster
The Government propositions soon brought the different parties to broad daylight, and placed them in contest.
"Memoirs To Illustrate The History Of My Time" by François Pierre Guillaume Guizot
There wasn't a man who treated my offer as a business proposition.
"One Way Out" by William Carleton
The word which connects the two propositions, and without which, they naturally make separate, independent, unconnected statements.
"A Handbook of the English Language" by Robert Gordon Latham
There wouldn't be any satisfaction in that proposition for me at this time.
"Jennie Gerhardt" by Theodore Dreiser
The South was, of course, rather exasperated than pacified by such a proposition.
"James Madison" by Sydney Howard Gay
I don't see anything funny about the proposition.
"The Spoilers of the Valley" by Robert Watson
The recollection of Eagen's proposition caused him to frown frequently.
"The Coyote" by James Roberts
The ethics of the proposition did not trouble him.
"The Golden Woman" by Ridgwell Cullum
These propositions are obvious.
"Introduction to the Study of History" by Charles V. Langlois
Did you ever hear of anyone who got them to sanction a proposition that was out of the usual run?
"The Greater Power" by Harold Bindloss
Miss Tallowax almost got out of her seat, as she curtseyed with her head and shoulders to this proposition.
"Is He Popenjoy?" by Anthony Trollope
The proposition about Brutus is not a necessary proposition.
"A Critical History of Greek Philosophy" by W. T. Stace
The thing was so preposterous that all the ladies in the room looked aghast at the proposition.
"Ayala's Angel" by Anthony Trollope
And because the last Proposition depended upon the velocity of Light, I will begin with a Proposition of that kind.
"Opticks" by Isaac Newton
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In poetry:

Having been to school
John knew the whole proposition.
As for innocent Jesus
He was one of Nature's phenomena, no doubt.
"St. John" by D H Lawrence
He showed that men, in dancing, do
Both impiously and absurdly,
And proved his proposition true,
With Firstly, Secondly, and Thirdly.
"John and Freddy" by William Schwenck Gilbert
Our milk should all come from the sea,
But who, I ask, would want to be—
And here the proposition fails—
The milkmaid to a herd of Whales?
"The Whale" by Ellis Parker Butler
If a man asserts that So-and-So is beautiful or sweet,
He is daffy on the proposition, Girl;
If he's weary in the evening and he keeps his subway seat,
He's immediately branded as a churl.
"Heads And Tails" by Franklin Pierce Adams
"I'm a on'ry proposition for to hurt;
I fulfill my earthly mission with a quirt;
I kin ride the highest liver
'Tween the Gulf and Powder River,
And I'll break this thing as easy as I'd flirt."
"The Legend Of Boastful Bill" by Badger Clark Jr
CES. It would seem that we have nothing more to consider upon this
proposition. Let us see now, how this quiver and bow of Eros display the
sparks around, and the knot of the string, which hangs down with the
legend, which is: Subito, clam.
"The Heroic Enthusiasts - Part The Second =First Dialogue.=" by Giordano Bruno

In news:

Unfair trials point up another reason to back Proposition 34.
Multinational pooling is described by its boosters as akin to a free lunch, a no-lose proposition for corporations with employees scattered around the globe.
Petting him sounds like a sticky proposition.
Proposition 34 on the Nov 6 ballot would repeal the state's death penalty option and replace it with life in prison without the possibility of parole.
Voters in Thurston County will decide in the next few weeks on Proposition No.
The site's model reaffirms b-to-b media's core value proposition.
Reject Propositions 2 and 3 in Layton.
Jerry Brown tells supporters in Los Angeles the latest poll numbers for Proposition 30 "look good, but we're not there yet.".
Con Seattle Proposition 1, the $60 car tab fee, regressive and doesn't address needs.
Seattle Proposition 1 would increase car-tab fees by $60 per vehicle annually.
Some executives thought it was their lucky day when Dina Wein Reis called with a lucrative proposition.
Pat Forde, Mark Schlabach and Ivan Maisel attacked an interesting proposition, choosing the top programs if the FBS was being winnowed to 40 members.
Proposition 1B will let voters in California decide on May 19.
Jerry Brown discusses election results Wednesday after his Proposition 30 tax victory.
Come to the 210 Connect community forum tonight to learn more about the proposed reforms in Proposition 31.
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In science:

In what follows, we assume a propositional language L generated by a finite set of propositional variables V using the standard sentential connectives ¬, ∧ , ∨ , →, and ↔. A theory is a finite set T ⊆ L, which will be identified with the formula Vφ∈T φ.
QUIP - A Tool for Computing Nonmonotonic Reasoning Tasks
Since proof of this proposition is similar to the proof of Proposition 1 we skip it.
Gaussian Random Matrix Models for q-deformed Gaussian Random Variables
We state the following proposition, as for the proof, see Proposition 5.2.
Classification on the average of random walks
Using Schur Lemma (see Proposition 2.2), one can apply the same argument as in [BDK], Proposition 6.12.
Classification of finite simple Lie conformal superalgebras
We shall use the following two Propositions, whose proof is the same as in the non-super case, see [DK], Lemma 4.3 and Proposition 5.1.
Classification of finite simple Lie conformal superalgebras
Then, by Proposition 2.6 , V is homothetic on some open subset and hence, by Proposition 1.4 , V is homothetic on (M , g ) ; the proof of the theorem follows from Proposition 2.5 .
Harmonic morphisms with one-dimensional fibres on Einstein manifolds
Alperin’s proof of the proposition is valid in this general setting, and it uses Proposition 2.3.
Clifford correspondence for algebras
Since On⋊αω G is simple, it has an infinite pro jection by Proposition 4.2 and Proposition 4.5.
AF-embeddability of crossed products of Cuntz algebras
The crossed product On⋊αω G has an infinite pro jection p by Proposition 4.2 and Proposition 4.5.
AF-embeddability of crossed products of Cuntz algebras
This proposition follows trivially from Proposition 4.
An example of simple Lie superalgebra with several invariant bilinear forms
Hence the pro jection formula in bK0 -groups can be reduced to the following proposition: Proposition 6.10.
Higher arithmetic K-theory
Proof of Proposition 5.2 (iii): This follows from injectivity of ϕ and Proposition 5.2 (ii).
A simple C*-algebra with a finite and an infinite projection
This proposition is a special case of Proposition 4.1 in [ShZ2] (which is a variation of a result in our earlier work [ShZ1]).
Equilibrium distribution of zeros of random polynomials
We remark that the result of this proposition also follows from the main Theorem 5.3 of this paper and [7, Proposition 3.8].
McKay correspondence for elliptic genera
By the same method that we used in the proof of Proposition 3.22, we can prove the following proposition.
Invariant Cyclic Homology
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