# proof

## Definitions

• Kiln Door Construction. Doors Seated. Fire-proof Construction
• WordNet 3.6
• adj proof (used in combination or as a suffix) able to withstand "temptation-proof","childproof locks"
• v proof make resistant (to harm) "proof the materials against shrinking in the dryer"
• v proof activate by mixing with water and sometimes sugar or milk "proof yeast"
• v proof knead to reach proper lightness "proof dough"
• v proof make or take a proof of, such as a photographic negative, an etching, or typeset
• n proof the act of validating; finding or testing the truth of something
• n proof a trial photographic print from a negative
• n proof any factual evidence that helps to establish the truth of something "if you have any proof for what you say, now is the time to produce it"
• n proof (printing) an impression made to check for errors
• n proof a formal series of statements showing that if one thing is true something else necessarily follows from it
• n proof a measure of alcoholic strength expressed as an integer twice the percentage of alcohol present (by volume)
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
• Interesting fact: Bullet proof vests, fire escapes, windshield wipers and laser printers were all invented by women.
• Proof (Math) A process for testing the accuracy of an operation performed. Cf. Prove v. t., 5.
• Proof (Print) A trial impression, as from type, taken for correction or examination; -- called also proof sheet.
• Proof Any effort, process, or operation designed to establish or discover a fact or truth; an act of testing; a test; a trial. "For whatsoever mother wit or art
Could work, he put in proof ."
"You shall have many proofs to show your skill.""Formerly, a very rude mode of ascertaining the strength of spirits was practiced, called the proof ."
• Proof Armor of excellent or tried quality, and deemed impenetrable; properly, armor of proof.
• Proof Being of a certain standard as to strength; -- said of alcoholic liquors.
• Proof Firm or successful in resisting; as, proof against harm; waterproof; bombproof. "I . . . have found thee Proof against all temptation.""This was a good, stout proof article of faith."
• Proof Firmness of mind; stability not to be shaken.
• Proof That degree of evidence which convinces the mind of any truth or fact, and produces belief; a test by facts or arguments that induce, or tend to induce, certainty of the judgment; conclusive evidence; demonstration. "I'll have some proof .""It is no proof of a man's understanding to be able to confirm whatever he pleases."
• Proof The quality or state of having been proved or tried; firmness or hardness that resists impression, or does not yield to force; impenetrability of physical bodies.
• Proof Used in proving or testing; as, a proof load, or proof charge.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
• Interesting fact: There is no solid proof of who built the Taj Mahal.
• n proof Any effort, act, or operation made for the purpose of ascertaining any truth or fact; a test; a trial: as, to make proof of a person's trustworthiness or courage.
• n proof Evidence and argumentation putting the conclusion beyond reasonable doubt; demonstration, perfect or imperfect.
• n proof A thing proved or tried; truth or knowledge gathered by experience; experience.
• n proof The state of having been tested and approved; firmness, hardness, or impenetrability: specifically applied to arms or armor of defense, to note that they have been duly tested and are impenetrable.
• n proof In law: The convincing effect of evidence; the manifestation of the truth of a proposition by presenting the reasons for assenting to it; such an array of evidence as should determine the judgment of the tribunal in regard to a matter of fact. In criminal cases, to be effectual as proof, the evidence must satisfy beyond a reasonable doubt. In civil cases it is enough that the evidence preponderates.
• n proof plural In equity practice, the instruments of evidence in their documentary form, as depositions, deeds, etc., received in a cause.
• n proof The presentation of sufficient evidence: as, the burden of proof lies with the plaintiff. Proof is either written or parole. The former consists of records, deeds, or other writings; the latter of the testimony of witnesses personally appearing in court or before a proper officer, and, as a rule, sworn to the truth of what they depose. In this sense the word is used to designate either the task of going forward with the giving of evidence at the trial or the task of satisfying the minds of the jury. Owing to the different functions of the judge and the jury, the distinction is of great practical importance, because when the plaintiff has given evidence which would entitle him if unanswered to go to the jury, it is proper for him to tell counsel that the burden of proof is on defendant, meaning that if the defendant adduces no evidence the plaintiff will be entitled to have the case submitted to the jury; but it is error for him thereupon, whether defendant offers evidence or not, to tell the jury that the burden of proof is on defendant to contradict plaintiff's case, for, considered as a task of satisfying the jury, the burden of proof remains upon the plaintiff throughout. The burden of proof is never on the defendant in this sense, except in respect to an affirmative defense in avoidance as distinguished from a denial.
• n proof In Scots law, the taking of evidence by a judge upon an issue framed in pleading. Sometimes disputed facts may be sent to a jury, but, except in actions of damages, a proof is almost invariably the course adopted. … The evidence as the proof is taken down in shorthand, and counsel are heard at the close. Henry Goudy.
• n proof A test applied to manufactured articles or to natural substances prepared for use; hence, the state of that which has undergone this test, or is capable of undergoing it satisfactorily. Compare armor of proof.
• n proof In alcoholic liquors, the degree of strength which gives a specific gravity of 0.920. See II., 2. Liquors lighter than this are said to be above proof, and heavier liquors are below proof. See overproof and underproof.
• n proof In printing, a trial impression from composed type, taken for correction. Generally a number of successive proofs are read before the matter is ready for the press, corrections being made first in the printing-office until what is technically called a clean proof can be submitted to the author. The final proof is called a press-proof or a foundry-proof, the first being used of letterpress work, and the latter of plate-work.
• n proof In engraving and etching, an impression taken from an engraved plate to show its state during the progress of executing it; also, an early and superior impression, or one of a limited number, taken before the title or inscription is engraved on the plate, and known as proof before letter. There may be first, second, and third proofs, marking successive states of the work. See also artist's proof, India proof, proof with open letters, and proof with remarque, below.
• n proof In numismatics, any early impression struck at the mint from a coin-die used for producing the current coins of the realm. Proofs are often distinguished from the coins struck off for actual currency by having their edges left plain instead of being milled or inscribed. They are also often struck in a metal of greater or less value than that which is proper to the current coin: thus, there are gold, silver, and bronze proofs of the English copper farthing issued by George III. in 1799. Compare pattern, 8.
• n proof In bookbinding, the rough uncut edges of the shorter leaves of a trimmed book, which prove that the book has not been cut down too much.
• n proof In arithmetic, an operation serving to check the accuracy of the calculation.
• n proof Proof independent of experience.
• n proof Synonyms Experiment, essay, ordeal.
• n proof Testimony, etc. (see evidence and inference), demonstration, certification.
• proof Impenetrable; able to resist, physically or morally: as, water-proof, fire-proof, shot-proof, bribe-proof: often followed by to or against before the thing resisted.
• proof Noting alcoholic liquors which have the specific gravity 0.91984, usually considered as 0.920, which is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. Such spirits contain 0.495 of their weight, or 0.5727 of their volume, of absolute alcohol. The strength is usually determined by a hydrometer. See alcoholometry, overproof, and underproof.
• proof Of excellent quality: said of land.
• n proof An assay of a bullion of known composition placed in the muffle with the other assays in order to determine the difference in weight due to the loss of silver by volatilization and absorption by the cupel.
• n proof In photography, a trial print from a negative.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
• Interesting fact: To determine the percentage of alcohol in a bottle of liquor divide the proof by two.
• n Proof prōōf that which proves or establishes the truth of anything: test: : : : : :
• adj Proof firm in resisting: noting alcoholic liquors having the specific gravity 0.920:—pl. Proofs
• n Proof prōōf (obs.) experience: experiment: any process to discover or establish a truth: that which convinces: demonstration: evidence which convinces the mind: state of having been proved
• n Proof prōōf (pl.) in equity practice, the instruments of evidence in their documentary form
• n Proof prōōf (Scots law) the taking of evidence by a judge upon an issue framed in pleading: a test, hence 'Armour of proof,' armour proved to be trustworthy
• n Proof prōōf (arith.) an operation checking the accuracy of a calculation: firmness of mind: a certain strength of alcoholic spirits
• n Proof prōōf (print.) an impression taken for correction, also 'proof-sheet:' an early impression of an engraving—'proof before letter'=one taken before the title is engraved on the plate
• n Proof prōōf (phot.) the first print from a negative
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## Quotations

• William Cowper
“Absence of proof is not proof of absence.”
• Benjamin Franklin
“The proof of gold is fire...”
“For those who believe, no proof is necessary. For those who don't believe, no proof is possible.”
• Elton Trueblood
“Faith is not belief without proof, but trust without reservation.”
• French Proverb
“Laughing is not always the proof of a mind at ease.”
• Roland Barthes
“Literature is without proofs. By which it must be understood that it cannot prove, not only what it says, but even that it is worth the trouble of saying it.”

## Idioms

Proof of the pudding is in the eating - This means that something can only be judged when it is tested or by its results. (It is often shortened to 'Proof of the pudding'.)
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## Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OF. prove, proeve, F. preuve, fr. L. proba, fr. probare, to prove. See Prove
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
O. Fr. prove (Fr. preuve)—L. probāre, to prove.

## Usage

### In literature:

Again, the development of the paragraph takes the form of proof or illustration.
"Elementary Guide to Literary Criticism" by F. V. N. Painter
Thanks to Sir Roderick Murchison, I am able to place the proof of this before you.
"Fragments of science, V. 1-2" by John Tyndall
This thesis seems scarcely to require proof.
"The World's Greatest Books--Volume 14--Philosophy and Economics" by Various
It appears to be a case in which rigid proof is hardly to be looked for.
"The World's Greatest Books - Volume 15 - Science" by Various
I have also directed Chapman and Hall to send you proofs of what has gone before, for reference, if you need it.
"The Letters of Charles Dickens" by Charles Dickens
Had I not better send them all to the printer, and let you have proofs kept by you for publishing?
"The Letters of Charles Dickens" by Charles Dickens
She faced the torture smiling, with a courage that was proof, if he had wanted proof, of her loyalty to Brodrick.
"The Creators" by May Sinclair
To be stopped by details (I might almost say repetitions) would therefore be to exhibit a fear in adducing proof.
"My Recollections of Lord Byron" by Teresa Guiccioli
A ship of war fitted with iron plates on the outside to render her shot-proof.
"The Sailor's Word-Book" by William Henry Smyth
Lastly, there was the culminating proof, a letter found that morning in Zette's room.
"The Joyous Adventures of Aristide Pujol" by William J. Locke
Why, they afford the strongest proofs to my mind that he is not, and never has been, the least bit in love with you.
"Her Mother's Secret" by Emma D. E. N. Southworth
Let us justify this comparison by some proof.
"Essay on the Creative Imagination" by Th. Ribot
Mr. Davy, in his "Angler in the Lake District," (a charming work), gives one or two anecdotes in proof of this.
"Anecdotes of Dogs" by Edward Jesse
Of course he was alone ... the proof being that when they went up and found poor Mlle.
"A Royal Prisoner" by Pierre Souvestre
A further proof of Cain's despair is, that he does not utter one word of reverence.
"Commentary on Genesis, Vol. II" by Martin Luther
Su-wa-nee can give proof of her words.
"The Wild Huntress" by Mayne Reid
That her resentment was strong she had given ample proof; and of her respect for treaties he judged by his own.
"Critical and Historical Essays, Volume III (of 3)" by Thomas Babington Macaulay
New proofs of guilt were being introduced as well as new methods of testing the matter.
"A History of Witchcraft in England from 1558 to 1718" by Wallace Notestein
It is a proof also that Aristotle really looked at Induction from the point of view of Interrogative Dialectic.
"Logic, Inductive and Deductive" by William Minto
Even the Church herself is not proof against snares of this kind.
"Toilers of the Sea" by Victor Hugo
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### In poetry:

I am cold -- be that Love's proof! --
And I burn -- the proof again! --
I would not be smooth but rough
Lest the smoother love should wane.
"The Test" by Katharine Tynan
Ye different sects, who all declare,
"Lo, here is Christ! " or, "Christ is here!"
And show me where the Christians live.
"Hymn XVI: Happy the Souls That First Believed" by Charles Wesley
I would frame all my doings to please thee, my God!
But how feeble my best efforts are;
Ah! how needful for me is thy chastening rod,
And a proof of thy fatherly care.
"Lines" by Mary Ann H T Bigelow
Graceful in name and in thyself, our river
None fairer saw in John Ward's pilgrim flock,
Proof that upon their century-rooted stock
The English roses bloom as fresh as ever.
"To G. G." by John Greenleaf Whittier
A helmett of proofe shee strait did provide,
A strong arminge-sword shee girt by her side,
On her hand a goodly faire gauntlett put shee:
Was not this a brave bonny lasse, Mary Ambree?
"Mary Ambree" by Anonymous British
A helmett of proofe shee strait did provide,
A stronge arminge-sword shee girt by her side,
On her hand a goodly faire gauntlett put shee:
Was not this a brave bonny lasse, Mary Ambree?
"Mary Ambree" by Andrew Lang

### In news:

An eagle-eyed debate-watcher snagged video proof Wednesday that the New York Mets' beloved Mister Met mascot is in fact just another stoop-shouldered a guy wearing a giant fake head.
Declassified documents add to proof that US helped cover up 1940 Soviet massacre.
Testing Defibrillation -Proof Circuits of Medical Products Simplified.
The MegaPulse Defib-5 is a simple, fast, easy-to-use tester designed to test defibrillation -proof circuits of medical products as required by the IEC.
Woman gets proof brother wasn't a deserter .
Google's Recession-Proof Armor Gets Dinged .
Proof that the Detroit Red Wings are the New York Yankees of the NHL can be found in the glee and giggling that you hear around the league over the Red Wings' attendance woes.
Dioxin causing cancer is just a theory with no proof.
The " dioxin causes cancer theory" is just that, and just so much talk without a lot of proof.
Millions of Latinos across the country could be deterred from voting due to voter purge, citizenship proof and ID laws.
What to Expect When You're Baby-Proofing.
In general I do not enjoy journalistic writing, most of which, in my mind, is proof that tired old thinking is available to anyone at anytime.
ANNONAY, France — David Millar, a reformed "ex- doper ," won a stage at the Tour de France on Friday, saying his victory is proof riders can win cleanly.
And Wendy Dore and her father, prominent Bay City businessman Art Dore , are living proof.
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### In science:

Proof: The proof is a repetition of the proof of 3.2 with some modiﬁcation.
Classification of simple $C^*$-algebras of tracial topological rank zero
We omit the proof because it is a simple combination of the ideas from Proof 2 and Proof 3.
Typed Generic Traversal With Term Rewriting Strategies
This concludes the proof of (3.59) and the proof of Lemma 10 will then be concluded with the proof of Lemma 11.
Green's canonical syzygy conjecture for generic curves of odd genus
Although not needed for the proof in the general case, we present the proof for GLn , since the ideas involved in the proof seem a bit more natural.
Unique decomposition of tensor products of irreducible representations of simple algebraic groups
The proof of the other direction is similar to the proof of Proposition 3.8 of , and we refer to parts of that proof for some of the argument.
Crossed products by finite cyclic group actions with the tracial Rokhlin property
There are three independent parts of the proof that this crossed product if AF for “most” θ: the proof that it satisﬁes the Universal Coeﬃcient Theorem, the proof that it has tracial rank zero, and the computation of the K-theory.
Crossed products by finite cyclic group actions with the tracial Rokhlin property
The proof of (iv) is similar to the proof of (ii), but one must apply some of the techniques from the proof of (iii) too.
Non-commutative Polynomials of Independent Gaussian Random Matrices. The Real and Symplectic Cases
Nevertheless, unlike the proof theoretical methods used in both G¨odel’s original proof and Boolos’s one, most of these new proofs apply sophisticated model theoretical methods that can hardly be considered “ﬁnitistic”.
Boolos-style proofs of limitative theorems
Proof: The proof of this is a combination of Villadsen’s proof of the main theorem in [V2] and the proof of 1.5 in [Ln8].
Simple nuclear $C^*$-algebras of tracial topological rank one
Proof: Much of the proof can be transcribed directly from our proof of Theorem 2.5 and as for the rest, similar arguments have appeared before (, ), so we will be succinct.
Random Cluster Models on the Triangular Lattice
Proof The proof follows from arguments used in the proof of Lemma on p. 828 in .
Almost Optimal Solution of Initial-Value Problems by Randomized and Quantum Algorithms
Proof. — The proof is quite formal and similar to proofs we have already given.
Constructible exponential functions, motivic Fourier transform and transfer principle
Proof The proof is the same as the proof of Proposition 4.4 in .
$\xi$-Groups and Hu-Liu Leibniz Algebras
Proof: The proof is completely analogous to the proof of Lemma (4) if γ is replaced by ν .
On the Inference of Spatial Continuity using Spartan Random Field Models
As said earlier, a proof of this intuitive reasoning is missing, and our method of proof is by coupling each random graph satisfying A1 and A2 to the Poisson random graph (PRG), and by giving a separate proof of Theorem 1.1-1.3 for the PRG.
Universality for the distance in finite variance random graphs: Extended version
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