presumption

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n presumption a kind of discourtesy in the form of an act of presuming "his presumption was intolerable"
    • n presumption audacious (even arrogant) behavior that you have no right to "he despised them for their presumptuousness"
    • n presumption (law) an inference of the truth of a fact from other facts proved or admitted or judicially noticed
    • n presumption an assumption that is taken for granted
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Presumption Ground for presuming; evidence probable, but not conclusive; strong probability; reasonable supposition; as, the presumption is that an event has taken place.
    • Presumption That which is presumed or assumed; that which is supposed or believed to be real or true, on evidence that is probable but not conclusive. "In contradiction to these very plausible presumptions ."
    • Presumption The act of presuming, or believing upon probable evidence; the act of assuming or taking for granted; belief upon incomplete proof.
    • Presumption The act of venturing beyond due beyond due bounds; an overstepping of the bounds of reverence, respect, or courtesy; forward, overconfident, or arrogant opinion or conduct; presumptuousness; arrogance; effrontery. "Thy son I killed for his presumption .""I had the presumption to dedicate to you a very unfinished piece."
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n presumption The act of presuming, or taking upon one's self more than good sense and propriety warrant; excessive boldness or over-confidence in thought or conduct; presumptuousness; assurance; arrogance.
    • n presumption The act of presuming or probably inferring; hypothetical or inductive inference.
    • n presumption That which is presumed; that which is supposed to be true upon grounds of probability.
    • n presumption A ground for presuming or believing; evidence or probability, as tending to establish an opinion.
    • n presumption In law, an inference as to the existence of one fact from the existence of some other fact, founded upon a previous experience of their connection, or dictated by the policy of the law. Presumptions are generally inferences in accordance with the common experience of mankind and the established principles of logic; but, as they differ in cogency or convincing power, the term is used variously as signifying different degrees of certainty in the inference.
    • n presumption Surmise, Conjecture, etc. See inference.
    • n presumption Likelihood, probability.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Presumption act of presuming: supposition: strong probability: that which is taken for granted: confidence grounded on something not proved: conduct going beyond proper bounds:
    • n Presumption (law) an assuming of the truth of certain facts from the existence of others having some connection with them
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Quotations

  • John Henry Newman
    John Henry Newman
    “Ability hits the mark where presumption overshoots and diffidence falls short.”
  • James Thurber
    James%20Thurber
    “It's a na?ve domestic Burgundy without any breeding, but I think you'll be amused by its presumption.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. praesumptio,: cf. F. présomption, OF. also presumpcion,. See Presume
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr. présumer—L. præsumĕrepræ, before, sumĕre, to take—sub, under, emĕre, to buy.

Usage

In literature:

All these presumptions exist independently of any direct testimony from Lady Byron.
"Lady Byron Vindicated" by Harriet Beecher Stowe
There is no presumption in its favor.
"The Promise Of American Life" by Herbert David Croly
Such poetic epithets do not afford the shadow of a presumption for Vedic totemism, even as a survival.
"Modern Mythology" by Andrew Lang
In the interval our theory remains pure presumption and hypothesis.
"The Life of Reason" by George Santayana
But I do say, that in all disputes between them and their rulers, the presumption is at least upon a par in favor of the people.
"The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Vol. I. (of 12)" by Edmund Burke
When direct evidence is not to be had, we are justified in using presumptive evidence.
"Journals of Travels in Assam, Burma, Bhootan, Afghanistan and TheNeighbouring Countries" by William Griffith
My sister tells me you are good enough not to be angry at my presumption.
"Marion Arleigh's Penance" by Charlotte M. Braeme
Such a presumption would go against all government in all modes.
"The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Vol. II. (of 12)" by Edmund Burke
If this were not enough, he has furnished you with other presumptions that are not to be shaken.
"The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Vol. III. (of 12)" by Edmund Burke
Their delusive good intention is no sort of excuse for their presumption.
"The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Vol. IV. (of 12)" by Edmund Burke
They have always the presumption of real utility, in exact proportion to their comparative value.
"Essays on Political Economy" by Frederic Bastiat
It was advertised so long ago, as to found a presumption that the sale has taken place.
"Memoir, Correspondence, And Miscellanies, From The Papers Of Thomas Jefferson" by Thomas Jefferson
The presumption is, therefore, that they will make an establishment of some sort on the northwest coast of America.
"Memoir, Correspondence, And Miscellanies, From The Papers Of Thomas Jefferson" by Thomas Jefferson
Lord Elster became Earl of Hartledon; and he, Val, heir-presumptive.
"Elster's Folly" by Mrs. Henry Wood
I expected the real Heir Presumptive to lead out the Princess.
"The Colonel of the Red Huzzars" by John Reed Scott
Nevertheless, I am at this moment capable of that presumption.
"The Ghost" by Arnold Bennett
We can only fall back upon what Butler would call 'a strong presumption.
"The Mormon Prophet" by Lily Dougall
But there is a still stronger presumption.
"The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Vol. X. (of 12)" by Edmund Burke
An expressive metaphor, borrowed from the false fire of a musket, meaning to fail of success after presumption.
"The Sailor's Word-Book" by William Henry Smyth
Nourgehan, persuaded of this important truth, was far from the presumption too common to Princes.
"Eastern Tales by Many Story Tellers" by Various
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In poetry:

DARIA.
I don't know:
Something 't was that typified
My presumption and my pride.
"The Two Lovers Of Heaven: Chrysanthus And Daria - Act I" by Denis Florence MacCarthy
Conceit! Presumption! What is this?
You surely read my words amiss;
Like Johnson I,--a man of mind!
How could you ever be so blind?
"At Cheshire Cheese" by Paul Laurence Dunbar
Haply, to follies an early wreck,--
For the cloud of presumption is now like a speck,
And with a whelming, sudden sweep
The storm of temptation roars over the deep;
"Forty" by Martin Farquhar Tupper
Yet sure 'twas not presumption, Lord,
'Twas Thine own comfortable word
That made the lesson known:
Of all the dearest bonds we prove,
Thou countest sons and mothers' love
Most sacred, most Thine own.
"The Annunciation Of The Blessed Virgin" by John Keble
IV. My heart overflowing, and new to each form
Of the world, I sought thee, nor fear'd to offend
By unconscious presumption: oh sure 'twas some charm
That thus led me to seek in a stranger, a friend!
"To Mrs. Lefanue" by Sydney Owenson
Most August! Empress of India, and of great Britain the Queen,
I most humbly beg your pardon, hoping you will not think it mean
That a poor poet that lives in Dundee,
Would be so presumptous to write unto Thee
"A Requisition to the Queen" by William Topaz McGonagall

In news:

Vincent Gray, presumptive next DC mayor, to raise private money for transition.
The Nassau County Department of Health was informed by the Nassau County Medical Examiner on Tuesday, Feb 17 that the presumptive cause of death of a 10-year-old Northside School student over last weekend was influenza A.
Contact Kentucky House Committee, Asking for a NO Vote on Presumptive Condition Bill.
Judge Allows ERISA Suit in Face of Presumption Managers Act Prudently .
After much speculation over who presumptive Republican presidential nominee Willard Mitt Romney would pick as his partner in the 2012 election, the wait is over.
The Indiana Supreme Court used an opinion Thursday to reaffirm the limitation described in Fletcher v. State on the judicial- temperance presumption.
Presumptive GOP presidential nominee Mitt Romney.
Mitt Romney, the presumptive GOP presidential nominee, delivers the commencement address at more.
That's the only presumptive protection they have from a trademark registration.
President-elect Barack Obama and his presumptive secretary of state, Hillary Rodham Clinton, both pledged during the campaign to press for peace in the Middle East.
Ever since Gov Chris Christie in late 2010 imposed tight limits on school superintendent pay, there was the presumption that this issue would ultimately have to be decided in the courts.
The Oakland County Health Division said the woman is in a metro Detroit area hospital with presumptive meningococcal meningitis.
Beam 's fourth quarter guidance, he added, includes the presumption of decreased business there.
Presumptive GOP presidential nominee Mitt Romney kicked around a few tax-reform ideas while speaking to major donors in Florida on Sunday, the Wall Street Journal reported Monday.
Presumptive GOP presidential nominee Mitt Romney and Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker wave together during a campaign event in Janesville, Wis.
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In science:

As a test of our presumption that both UV excess and Hα equivalent width are indicators of accretion activity, we show in Fig. 2 the relationship between them. U-V excess are from this study and Hα equivalent widths are from Dahm & Simon (2005).
Testing the Disk-Locking Paradigm: An Association Between U-V Excess and Rotation in NGC 2264
That is, there is the presumption implicit in any laboratory experiment that there is sufficient understanding about the nature of fire such that key variables can be isolated and measured without regard to the fire itself.
A review of wildland fire spread modelling, 1990-present 2: Empirical and quasi-empirical models
The BRCA data has been used in the microarray literature to compare analysis techniques, under the presumption that better techniques will produce more discoveries; recently, for instance, in Storey et al. (2005) and Pawitan et al. (2005).
Microarrays, Empirical Bayes and the Two-Groups Model
As has been discussed extensively in [192, 188, 193] there are serious concerns if the mathematical basics and presumptions of Algebraic Renormalization are valid on non-commutative spaces.
Gauge Theories on Deformed Spaces
With a presumption of free-free emission as the primary radio emission mechanism in PNe (Osterbrock 1989; Pottasch 1984), a construction of the SED plots can be used as a crude test of the reliability of our results.
A pilot study of the radio-continuum emission from MASH planetary nebulae
This could happen, and it often seems that this is the standard presumption.
CP and B Physics: Progress and Prospects
We assume that the application of the Painlev´e test (necessary conditions for the PP) has led either to no failure or to a minor failure, corresponding respectively to a presumption of integrability in the Painlev´e sense or of partial integrability.
The Painlev\'e approach to nonlinear ordinary differential equations
The simplicity of the model is due to some drastic presumptions.
Quantum theory of a high harmonic generation as a three-step process
This formula could be compared with Eq. (2.15) in Ref. obtained under presumption Ψf ≡ Ψi .
Quantum theory of a high harmonic generation as a three-step process
Thus they spare themselves trouble and avoid the appearance of presumption.
Algebra versus analysis in statistical mechanics and quantum field theory
Due to the presumptive equivalence between various Floer homology theories, it has been suggested that a similar property should hold for the Heegaard-Floer homology of the fibered three manifold in the above theorem.
On knot Floer homology for some fibered knots
Moreover, for both GR and the physically viable teleparallel theories, our energy for Bianchi class B turns out to be, contrary to our expectations and presumptions, negative.
On the energy of homogeneous cosmologies
Verifying the automorphy of these presumptive forms is one possible application of the algorithm for evaluating the Whittaker functions presented in the later section.
Evaluating Whittaker functions and Maass forms for SL(3,Z)
Even if a presumption in this work is that the development of new and better integral preserving schemes is useful, we would still like to mention some situations where schemes with such properties are of importance.
A general framework for deriving integral preserving numerical methods for PDEs
First, in contrast to the presumption in TRS-398, the knowledge of the whole particle spectra is not of practical importance for the plateau and peak peak region.∗ The STPR can be simply approximated with a relative deviation much smaller than the uncertainties of all available stopping-power data.
Analytical expressions for stopping-power ratios relevant for accurate dosimetry in particle therapy
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