presume

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • v presume take liberties or act with too much confidence
    • v presume take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof "I assume his train was late"
    • v presume constitute reasonable evidence for "A restaurant bill presumes the consumption of food"
    • v presume take upon oneself; act presumptuously, without permission "How dare you call my lawyer?"
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The term 'crack' refers to the crackling sound heard when the mixture is smoked (heated), presumably from the sodium bicarbonate.
    • Presume To assume or take beforehand; esp., to do or undertake without leave or authority previously obtained. "Dare he presume to scorn us in this manner?""Bold deed thou hast presumed , adventurous Eve."
    • Presume To suppose or assume something to be, or to be true, on grounds deemed valid, though not amounting to proof; to believe by anticipation; to infer; as, we may presume too far.
    • Presume To take or suppose to be true, or entitled to belief, without examination or proof, or on the strength of probability; to take for granted; to infer; to suppose. "Every man is to be presumed innocent till he is proved to be guilty.""What rests but that the mortal sentence pass, . . . Which he presumes already vain and void,
      Because not yet inflicted?"
    • Presume To venture, go, or act, by an assumption of leave or authority not granted; to go beyond what is warranted by the circumstances of the case; to venture beyond license; to take liberties; -- often with on or upon before the ground of confidence. "Do not presume too much upon my love.""This man presumes upon his parts."
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • presume To take upon one's self; undertake; venture; dare: generally with an infinitive as object.
    • presume To believe or accept upon probable evidence; infer as probable; take for granted.
    • presume Synonyms Surmise, Guess, etc. (see conjecture), think, consider.
    • presume To be venturesome; especially, to venture beyond the limits of ordinary license or propriety; act or speak overboldly.
    • presume To press forward presumptuously; be led by presumption; make one's way overconfidently into an unwarranted place or position.
    • presume To take; to take to oneself: with of.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • v.t Presume prē-zūm′ to take as true without examination or proof: to take for granted
    • v.i Presume to venture beyond what one has ground for: to act forwardly or without proper right
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Quotations

  • John Gray
    John Gray
    “To offer a man unsolicited advice is to presume that he doesn't know what to do or that he can't do it on his own.”
  • Alexander Pope
    Alexander%20Pope
    “If, presume not to God to scan; The proper study of Mankind is Man. Plac'd on this isthmus of a middle state, a being darkly wise, and rudely great.”
  • Stanley Garn
    Stanley Garn
    “If the aborigine drafted an IQ test, all of Western civilization would presumably flunk it.”
  • George Steiner
    George%20Steiner
    “Language can only deal meaningfully with a special, restricted segment of reality. The rest, and it is presumably the much larger part, is silence.”
  • Edmund Burke
    Edmund%20Burke
    “If the people are happy, united, wealthy, and powerful, we presume the rest. We conclude that to be good from whence good is derived.”
  • Socrates
    Socrates
    “Where there is reverence there is fear, but there is not reverence everywhere that there is fear, because fear presumably has a wider extension than reverence.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F. présumer, L. praesumere, praesumptum,; prae, before + sumere, to take. See Assume Redeem

Usage

In literature:

It is presumed that no man, retaining reason was ever able soon to forget any enormity, which he knew himself guilty.
"Sermons on Various Important Subjects" by Andrew Lee
I was presuming that you think.
"The Colossus" by Opie Read
We ought, from experience, rather to presume the contrary.
"The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Vol. II. (of 12)" by Edmund Burke
I presume you have received that letter.
"The Underground Railroad" by William Still
He belonged to the swells and the stuck-ups; and he knowed it, and presumed upon it.
"The Girl from Montana" by Grace Livingston Hill
A school friend of my wife's, I presume?
"A Doll's House" by Henrik Ibsen
Courteously refined in mind and feelings, he could not have presumed.
"Verner's Pride" by Mrs. Henry Wood
What I found in other places I know was accidental, and therefore to be presumed a fair sample.
"The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Vol. III. (of 12)" by Edmund Burke
He is said to be found on all station platforms of importance, and I presume he's standing there waiting for us now.
"A Voyage of Consolation" by Sara Jeannette Duncan
I presume you will walk.
"Japhet, In Search Of A Father" by Frederick Marryat
The gorse case is very valuable, and I will quote it, as I presume I may.
"Alfred Russel Wallace: Letters and Reminiscences, Vol. 1 (of 2)" by James Marchant
But I do not presume to inquire where you are going, and I myself am certainly not bound for Naples.
"The Passenger from Calais" by Arthur Griffiths
Yes, Mr. Liston presumed there would be a crowd.
"Bad Hugh" by Mary Jane Holmes
I presume you wish the young lady and the woman to be brought back to you, when the singer is dead.
"Stradella" by F(rancis) Marion Crawford
I presume because when we have lost almost everything, we cherish more that which remains to us.
"Valerie" by Frederick Marryat
Hang thee, beggar's cur, thy master is but a mumper in love, lies canting at the gate; but never dares presume to enter the house.
"The Comedies of William Congreve Volume 1 [of 2]" by William Congreve
You will, I presume, put them in cypher before they are sent off.
"The Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution, Vol. XI" by Various
The evils of it, however, it may be fairly presumed, are greatly exaggerated.
"Cotton is King and The Pro-Slavery Arguments" by Various
I presume that you did not come here solely with the purpose of expressing your amiable opinion of my veracity?
"The Master Mummer" by E. Phillips Oppenheim
Now, I presume, she has pledged herself to you?
"Thurston of Orchard Valley" by Harold Bindloss
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In poetry:

Firm was my health, my day was bright,
And I presumed 'twould ne'er be night;
Fondly I said within my heart,
"Pleasure and peace shall ne'er depart."
"Psalm 30 part 2" by Isaac Watts
But, Oh! myself I wretchedly deceiv'd,
Fondly presuming I shou'd never die,
Or if I died, I foolishly believ'd,
That in the grave I shou'd unquestion'd lie!
"The Complaint And The Advice Of Dives, To His Five Brethren (Part 1)" by Rees Prichard
But consecrate thy body unto God;
For a pure body is the Godhead's fane,
Christ's member, and the Trinity's abode:
Presume not thou that temple to prophane.
"Advice And Warning To The Adulterer" by Rees Prichard
David. O king! I would not aught from favour claim,
Or on remember'd services presume;
But on the strength of my own actions stand,
Ungrac'd and unsupported.
"David And Goliath. A Sacred Drama" by Hannah More
Put on thy best, at least a cleanly dress,
And sanctify thyself — or don't presume
Into the temple of the Lord to press,
Unless prepar'd with decency to come.
"Concerning The Sabbath" by Rees Prichard
The flowing tartan and the eagle plume,
The gathering, and the glories of the clan,
Let others sing, we will not so presume,
We bring our humble tribute to the man.
"Address To The Hon. Malcolm Cameron" by Nora Pembroke

In news:

Livingstone , I Presume.
Livingstone 's lost diary, I presume.
HomeGrown Theater Presents Veronica Livingstone , I Presume.
Four Japanese climbers are presumed dead days after an avalanche consumed a stretch of Mount McKinley where they had begun their descent.
A video posted online appears to show a Verizon picketer placing his young daughter in front of an oncoming truck — presumably carrying non-union employees — and then taunting the passengers with profanity-laced statements.
First, we see a pregnant woman and her husband sitting at a table, watching two little kids with an older couple, who are presumably their grandparents.
Hawk says of Aaron Rodgers, the presumed starter in Green Bay.
All suspects in the police blotter are presumed innocent unless proven guilty in a court of law.
Once upon a time, Mike Holmgren and the Cleveland Browns were doing all they could to acquire from St Louis the second overall choice in the 2012 NFL draft, presumably to select Baylor quarterback Robert Griffin III.
The presumed death toll is 11 - taking into account the missing and five bodies found so far.
Joe's first album in 20 years, Analog Man, is presumably the main reason for his CMT Crossroads episode, which includes two numbers from the new disc.
Coach Sean Payton has to get reinstated from his season-long suspension and presumably signed to a new contract extension.
A Maryland man who had been suspected in the presumed death of his traveling companion in Aruba has been arrested on a charge of indecent exposure.
Magic's coaching search enters critical phase with Vaughn as presumed front-runner .
San Antonio Spurs assistant coach Jacque Vaughn, widely presumed to be front-runner for the job, met with Magic CEO Alex Martins on Friday in Las Vegas for a second-round interview.
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In science:

It defines the approximate value of the centroid of the eigenvalues and has presumably only a small influence on the spectral statistics.
The Two-Body Random Ensemble in Nuclei
The excitations relax very slowly, presumably via tunneling processes, as suggested by the temperature independence of the experimental data (for T < 140K ).
A Simple Model for Simple Aging in Glassy Yttrium-Hydrides
The statistical mechanics presumes that the equilibrium state is described by stationary Markov process.
Fluctuations and Long-Term Stability: from Coherence to Chaos
The strong dependence of the estimate (21) on the parameters ξ , τ , and ζ makes accurate determination of their values, presumably by simulations, crucial to solidify this conclusion.
Are GRB shocks mediated by the Weibel instability?
A presumably important physical mechanism is the synchrotron maser instability at the shock front.
Are GRB shocks mediated by the Weibel instability?
In the standard analysis one can presume that the algebra of propositions has a Boolean structure and then invoke certain axioms that a rational notion of probabilistic inference should obey.
Relationalism vs. Bayesianism
This argument, however, does not follow through, because we do not presume that the variables involved (a, b, A, B ) are hidden variables that complete quantum theory.
Relationalism vs. Bayesianism
Similarly we invoke Bayesian probability because we do not want our inferences (rather than a demon observer’s) to depend upon the vagaries of a particular average over hidden configurations that we might presume to be the case.
Relationalism vs. Bayesianism
Bell proved that we cannot presume a hidden configuration in quantum theory without also having to acknowledge some form of nonlocality.
Relationalism vs. Bayesianism
Perhaps we can presume that we could have known the ‘real’ configuration, but we certainly cannot presume that we do know the ‘real’ configuration because we are presuming ignorance.
Relationalism vs. Bayesianism
Suppose eP is some transition probability function which (presumably) does not satisfy reversibility with respect to π .
Nonparametric Bayesian Classification
Galactic stars in Paper I (their Fig. 5a), although the scatter was significant, due presumably to the large (and in some cases, uncertain) reddening.
The Effective Temperatures and Physical Properties of Magellanic Cloud Red Supergiants: The Effects of Metallicity
Although we do not have a proof of this, presumably there exists a critical exponent l0 such that the law of large numbers holds for Zn,nl when l < l0 and does not hold when l > l0 .
When the law of large numbers fails for increasing subsequences of random permutations
Presumably similar techniques should resolve this type of marginal deformation problem in both the open and closed cases. A resolution of this would make it possible, for example, to describe the moduli space of a Calabi-Yau compactification using closed string field theory.
String Field Theory
Again, however, presumably similar complications of gauge choice, field redefinitions, and quantum definition will need to be resolved to make progress in this direction.
String Field Theory
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