# precedent

## Definitions

• WordNet 3.6
• adj precedent preceding in time, order, or significance
• n precedent an example that is used to justify similar occurrences at a later time
• n precedent (civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions
• n precedent a subject mentioned earlier (preceding in time)
• n precedent a system of jurisprudence based on judicial precedents rather than statutory laws "common law originated in the unwritten laws of England and was later applied in the United States"
• ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
• Interesting fact: From 1836 to 1896, the Red Flag Act in England required that any self-propelled vehicle be preceded by a man carrying a red flag by day and a red lantern by night. In effect, this limited the speed to four miles per hour and retarded the development of all self-propelled vehicles, including the automobile.
• Precedent (Law) A judicial decision which serves as a rule for future determinations in similar or analogous cases; an authority to be followed in courts of justice; forms of proceeding to be followed in similar cases.
• Precedent A preceding circumstance or condition; an antecedent; hence, a prognostic; a token; a sign.
• Precedent A rough draught of a writing which precedes a finished copy.
• a Precedent Going before; anterior; preceding; antecedent; as, precedent services. "A precedent injury."
• Precedent Something done or said that may serve as an example to authorize a subsequent act of the same kind; an authoritative example. "Examples for cases can but direct as precedents only."
• ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
• Interesting fact: Madagascar is the fourth largest island in the world, preceded by Greenland, New Guinea, and Borneo.
• precedent (prē˙-sē′ dent). Preceding; going before in the order of time; antecedent; anterior; previous; former.
• n precedent (pres′ ē˙-dent). A preceding action or circumstance which may serve as a pattern or example in subsequent cases; an antecedent instance which creates a rule for following cases; a model instance.
• n precedent Specifically, in law: A judicial decision, interlocutory or final, which serves as a rule for future determinations in similar or analogous cases.
• n precedent A form of proceeding or of an instrument followed or deemed worthy to be followed as a pattern in similar or analogous cases.
• n precedent A custom, habit, or rule established; previous example or usage.
• n precedent A presage; sign; indication.
• n precedent An original, as the original draft of a writing.
• n precedent Synonyms Pattern, Model, etc. See example.
• ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
• Interesting fact: The computer in 2001: A Space Odyssey as a tongue-in-cheek reference to IBM. The name was derived from the fact that the letters H-A-L precede the letters I-B-M in the alphabet.
• adj Precedent going before in order of time: anterior
• n Precedent (pres′ēdent) a past action which may serve as an example or rule in the future: a parallel case in the past: an established habit or custom
• ***

## Quotations

• William Wordsworth
“Thought and theory must precede all salutary action; yet action is nobler in itself than either thought or theory.”
• Vernon Howard
“Insight into the two selves within a man clears up many confusions and contradictions. It was our understanding that preceded our victory.”
• Jean Racine
“Small crimes always precedes great ones.”
• Wilferd A. Peterson
“Big thinking precedes great achievement.”
• James Freeman Clarke
“All the strength and force of man comes from his faith in things unseen. He who believes is strong; he who doubts is weak. Strong convictions precede great actions.”
• Elbert Hubbard
“Genius is the ability to act rightly without precedent -- the power to do the right thing the first time.”

## Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. praecedens, -entis, p. pr. of praecedere,: cf. F. précédent,. See Precede
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr.,—L. præcedens, -entis, pr.p. of præcedĕre, to go before.

## Usage

### In literature:

With one remark, I will bring my reflections on the preceding legends to an end.
"Welsh Folk-Lore a Collection of the Folk-Tales and Legends of North Wales" by Elias Owen
This was the result for the year preceding the enactment of the Morrill tariff.
"Sophisms of the Protectionists" by Frederic Bastiat
The bride's trousseau should be finished well before the fortnight preceding the wedding.
"The Handy Cyclopedia of Things Worth Knowing" by Joseph Triemens
In writing foreign names which contain particles, capitalize the particles when not preceded by a Christian name or title.
"Capitals" by Frederick W. Hamilton
Malik and Hanbal preferred authority and precedent.
"The Faith of Islam" by Edward Sell
These gods, accordingly, take precedence of Nin-girsu in the first list.
"The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria" by Morris Jastrow
When these picots serve as a finish to a straight edge, make 2 single stitches in the preceding row instead of 2 chain.
"Encyclopedia of Needlework" by Thérèse de Dillmont
The rule holds when the last member of the series is preceded by a conjunction.
"Punctuation" by Frederick W. Hamilton
The instruction in firing will be preceded by a command for loading.
"Infantry Drill Regulations, United States Army, 1911" by United States War Department
And is it not true that faith must precede our love to God, and affords the only possible basis on which that can be built?
"Expositions of Holy Scripture" by Alexander Maclaren
Again, charity precedes the virtue of religion.
"On Prayer and The Contemplative Life" by St. Thomas Aquinas
In the preceding Congress there had been thirty Federalists and eleven Republicans.
"Union and Democracy" by Allen Johnson
Use the dash preceded by a comma before a word which sums up the preceding part of a sentence.
"Practical Grammar and Composition" by Thomas Wood
The election which occurred in June was not preceded by a campaign of speaking.
"A Political History of the State of New York, Volumes 1-3" by DeAlva Stanwood Alexander
The preceding Inventory was made on the 25th and 26th of July, 1656.
"Rembrandt and His Works" by John Burnet
It must not be supposed that the whisper is always associated with moderate or with weak force as in the preceding examples.
"The Ontario High School Reader" by A.E. Marty
European immigration has produced a much more decided effect in this section than in the preceding.
"The Catholic World; Volume I, Issues 1-6" by E. Rameur
All preceding deals stand good.
"Hoyle's Games Modernized"
It offers, therefore, a kind of parallelism in expression, to the preceding term.
"The American Indians" by Henry R. Schoolcraft
But it is not styled by the name of star-chamber in this, any more than in the preceding statute.
"Constitutional History of England, Vol 1 of 3" by Henry Hallam
***

### In poetry:

No Cesar he, whom we lament,
A Man without a precedent,
Sent, it would see, to do
His work--and perish too!
"Abraham Lincoln: An Horatian Ode" by Richard Henry Stoddard
No Caesar he, whom we lament,
A man without a precedent,
Sent it would seem, to do
His work--and perish too!
"An Horatian Ode" by Richard Henry Stoddard
There is no dearer sound to me,
So long, so far a wanderer,
Than this sweet restful prophecy —
The sound of silk preceding her.
"Silk" by John Joy Bell
No more 'twas "Lethe rolling doom,"
But Lethe calling, "Come to me,
And wash away all memory
And taint of what precedes the tomb;
"An Afternoon Soliloquy" by Thomas Runciman
Calm as that second summer which precedes
The first fall of the snow,
In the broad sunlight of heroic deeds,
The City bides the foe.
"Charleston" by Henry Timrod
But, whatsoe'er they do or say, I'll build a Christian's hope
On incense and on altar-lights, on chasuble and cope.
Let others prove, by precedent, the faith that they profess:
"His can't be wrong" that's symbolized by such becoming dress.
"The Ritualist" by Francis Bret Harte

### In news:

A series of public meetings will be held, preceding official approval of the Arkansas Valley Conduit Environmental Impact Assessment.
He was born July 21, 1934 in Stockholm, Sweden the son of Karl Gustaf and Ruth (Rasmusson) Velander, both of whom preceded him in death.
He was preceded in death by his parents, Roy and Lula Walls DeFoe .
She was preceded in death by two sons, Gartrell Dills and Aubrey Dills .
Donna was preceded in death by her son, Perry.
Long-term rate decline 'clearly without recent precedent'.
Lilly set a precedent when it launched its online CME grant registry last week.
The conference will be preceded by an optional day of service to help rebuild the city.
She was preceded in death by her husband, Edward L Campbell Sr.
Rick preceded her in death by 5 years.
British authorities forcefully entering the Embassy of Ecuador in London where WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange has taken refuge would not only be illegal but also set a frightening precedent, putting embassies around the world at risk.
Israel's position is reasonable and backed by precedent.
Christine Lagarde delivers a speech at a special forum preceding the 2012 Annual Meetings of the IMF and World Bank Group in Tokyo.
Artists often draw inspiration from those who have preceded them.
She was preceded in death by her father, Jimmy Kirby.
***

### In science:

Theorem 3.3 and the discussion preceding Theorem 3.4 of show that if in addition G is cyclic of order n, then the strict Rokhlin property implies that K∗(A) is uniquely n-divisible.
Crossed products by finite cyclic group actions with the tracial Rokhlin property
Using Theorem 1.17 of (see the preceding discussion for the deﬁnition of N ), it follows from Lemma 5.5 that Aθ satisﬁes the Universal Coeﬃcient Theorem.
Crossed products by finite cyclic group actions with the tracial Rokhlin property
Using Theorem 1.17 of (see the preceding discussion for the deﬁnition of N ), it follows from Theorem 7.6 that Ar(θ) satisﬁes the Universal Coeﬃcient Theorem.
Crossed products by finite cyclic group actions with the tracial Rokhlin property
The fragmentation is independednt of the number of preceding collisions.
Simple models of the contribution of intermediate state gluons to J\psi suppression at the CERN SPS
In the preceding Theorem, we chose the same ’bad’ set for both measures π and η .
Convergence to equilibrium for finite Markov processes, with application to the Random Energy Model
Assume i > 0, so that there are steps preceding and succeeding the sequence of level steps.
Path counting and random matrix theory
Moreover, due to the alternating constraint, they have to either be preceded by a rise and succeeded by a fall, or the reverse, as in the regions B, D of Figure 7.
Path counting and random matrix theory
If there are both preceding and succeeding steps, they can only be a fall and a rise (in this order); in this case the sequence of level steps has even length.
Path counting and random matrix theory
In the preceding sections we were speaking about the dynamics of ensembles.
Geometry of irreversibility: The film of nonequilibrium states
The preceding discussion is easily generalized to systems with Aharonov-Bohm ﬂux lines or with smooth boundary potentials, where the ﬁrst non-direct contribution includes paths with one classical turning point.
Semiclassical Construction of Random Wave Functions for Confined Systems
It follows from assertion (v) in the preceding lemma that no eigenvalue of Lk is zero.
The Arnold-Givental conjecture and moment Floer homology
An analysis similar to that preceding Proposition 2.1 shows that a skew-symmetric operator A has skew-adjoint extensions if there exists a norm-preserving linear involution which anticommutes with A.
Dynamics in Stationary, Non-Globally Hyperbolic Spacetimes
Analogous to the preceding proof, again using the good interface of Ca and Cb .
Normal bundles of rational curves in projective spaces
Variables are preceded by a “? ” mark instead of being uppercase, coherently with the la nguage syntax.
Logic-Based Specification Languages for Intelligent Software Agents
For the ﬁrst part, the minimality of the action as stated in the preceding theorem implies the simplicity of AFf ,θ [3, 25].
$C^\ast$-algebras from Anzai flows and their $K$-groups
***