post hoc

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n post hoc the logical fallacy of believing that temporal succession implies a causal relation
    • ***

Usage

In literature:

It makes all the difference whether any given event is a case of propter hoc or post hoc.
"Poetics" by Aristotle
Post hoc: ergo, propter hoc is not always sound reasoning.
"The Miscellaneous Writings and Speeches of Lord Macaulay, Vol. 4 (of 4)" by Thomas Babington Macaulay
The post hoc ergo propter hoc error: he got well after taking my medicine; therefore in consequence of taking it.
"Medical Essays" by Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.
Post hoc, ergo propter hoc, is the motto of the savage philosophy of causation.
"Myth, Ritual, and Religion, Vol. 1" by Andrew Lang
Elapso post hoc tempore, quidam satellites diabuli uirum quendam iuxta monasterium eius commorantem interficere conabantur.
"The Latin & Irish Lives of Ciaran" by Anonymous
Et paulo post: Nec quisquam inveniri potest, qui hoc Deum credat esse, quo melius aliquid est.
"Theodicy" by G. W. Leibniz
Post hoc proelium Creon rex, tanta victoria laetus, filiam suam Herculi in matrimonium dedit.
"Latin for Beginners" by Benjamin Leonard D'Ooge
POST HOC, ERGO PROPTER HOC.
"Sophisms of the Protectionists" by Frederic Bastiat
Et Jesum, benedictum fructum ventris tui, ventris tui, nobis post hoc exsilium ostende.
"The St. Gregory Hymnal and Catholic Choir Book" by Various
Gestit enim nummum in loculos demittere, post hoc securus cadat an recto stet fabula talo.
"The Student's Companion to Latin Authors" by George Middleton
***

In news:

In a post-hoc modelling analysis we characterised the associations between anti-circumsporozoite antibodies and protection against clinical malaria episodes.
Banning Gang Colors is a Post-Hoc Solution.
Somewhere, among hasty generalizations and a post hoc reference to W.A.
This is a post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy that one usually learns in low-level college logic courses.
Post hoc, population-based analysis of pivotal trials explored the efficacy of VIMPAT® relative to placebo starting from the first week of exposure1.
I've always enjoyed ABBA — not in that post-hoc, so-bad-it's good hip way, but innocently, the way I like Phil Spector.
***

In science:

An ideal multiple hypothesis testing procedure for exploratory research should sanction a mild, post hoc and flexible approach.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
Such methods are clearly not mild, and they are not post hoc, as all data analysis decisions have to be made before seeing the data.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
This method is mild, post hoc, and quite flexible, although it does not allow a fully arbitrary selection of the set of rejected hypotheses.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
However, they are not post hoc, as the set of rejected hypotheses is completely determined after setting the FDR threshold.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
In this paper we present an approach to multiple testing that does allow mild, flexible and post hoc inference.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
By the nature of the requirements of being flexible and post hoc, such a procedure cannot prescribe what hypotheses to reject, but can only advise.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
The simultaneity of the sets makes their coverage robust against post hoc selection.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
Furthermore, the procedure is post hoc, because it allows the user to review the consequences, in terms of the potential number of false rejections, of any choice of rejected hypotheses before making a final choice, without compromising the quality of the inferences obtained.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
It is immediate from the procedure that reducing the tested set of hypotheses to a set R a priori is at least as powerful as, and likely more powerful than, testing a larger set and selecting the same set R post hoc.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
Post hoc selection will generally result in wider confidence sets than a priori selection: this is the price to be paid for the risk of overfit caused by post hoc selection.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
As GS note, exploratory inference should be mild, flexible and post hoc.
Discussion of "Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research" by J. J. Goeman and A. Solari
Even without a fast semi-analytic scheme, there are a variety of small corrections that can be applied post hoc.
Cosmological parameters from CMB and other data: a Monte-Carlo approach
In addition to the cell-specific tests as post-hoc tests for overall tests, we discuss one-class-versus-rest type of NNCT-tests after an overall test yields significant interaction.
New Cell-Specific and Overall Tests of Spatial Interaction Based on Nearest Neighbor Contingency Tables
In practice, cell-specific tests serve as post-hoc tests to be performed when an overall test yields a significant result.
New Cell-Specific and Overall Tests of Spatial Interaction Based on Nearest Neighbor Contingency Tables
However, NNCT-tests provide more alternatives (compared to ANOVA F -test) as post-hoc tests after an overall test is significant.
New Cell-Specific and Overall Tests of Spatial Interaction Based on Nearest Neighbor Contingency Tables
***